Table 1: Definitions of landmarks.

Landmarks
NameAbbreviationDefinition

NasionNAnterior limit of sutura nasofrontalis
SubspinaleA PointDeepest point on contour of alveolar projection between spinal point and prosthion
BasionBaThe most inferior point on the anterior border of the foramen magnum in the midsagital plane
PorionPoThe most superiorly positioned point of the external auditory meatus
Pterygoid pointPtThe intersection of the inferior border of the foramen rotundum with the posterior wall of the pterygomaxillary fissure
SupramentaleB PointDeepest point on contour of alveolar projection between infradentale and pogonion
PogonionPgThe most anterior point of symphysis
Protuberance menti- or suprapogonionPMA point selected where the curvature of anterior border of the symphysis changes from concave toconvex
Upper incisor edgeUIEIncisal edge of the most anterior upper incisor
Lower incisor edgeLIEIncisal edge of the most anterior lower incisor