109189.fig.005
Figure 5: MAPK phosphorylation in Leishmania-infected macrophages: Leishmania infection of macrophages represses the most important MAPK family members: ERK1/2, p38, and JNK. MAPK inactivation is accompanied by inhibition of transcription factors Elk-1, c-fos, IRF-1, AP-1, and NF-κB and IFN-γ-dependent NO generation.