- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 138237, 7 pages
Immunologic Characterization of Posthepatitis Cirrhosis Caused by HBV and HCV Infection
Department of Hepatology, First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
Received 9 February 2010; Accepted 14 April 2010
Academic Editor: Young S. Hahn
Copyright © 2010 Wan-Yu Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- National Digestive Diseases Information Clearing House, “Cirrhosis ,” January 2008.
- A. Bertoletti and A. J. Gehring, “The immune response during hepatitis B virus infection,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 1439–1449, 2006.
- W. N. Chen, H. Feng, J. Zhang, and X. Li, “HBX-Mediated migration of HBV-replicating HepG2 cells: insights on development of hepatocellular carcinoma,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2009, Article ID 930268, 6 pages, 2009.
- T. Manigold and V. Racanelli, “T-cell regulation by CD4 regulatory T cells during hepatitis B and C virus infections: facts and controversies,” Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 804–813, 2007.
- Y. Kondo, S. Asabe, K. Kobayashi et al., “Recovery of functional cytotoxic T lymphocytes during lamivudine therapy by acquiring multi-specificity,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 425–433, 2004.
- W. Liu, A. L. Putnam, Z. Xu-Yu et al., “CD127 expression inversely correlates with FoxP3 and suppressive function of human CD4+ T reg cells,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 203, no. 7, pp. 1701–1711, 2006.
- M. A. S. Zarife, E. A. G. Reis, T. M. A. Carmo et al., “Increased frequency of CD56Bright NK-cells, CD3−CD16+CD56− NK-cells and activated CD4+T-cells or B-cells in parallel with CD4+CDC25High T-cells control potentially viremia in blood donors with HCV,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 49–59, 2009.
- S. F. Ahmad, A. Pandey, K. Kour, and S. Bani, “Downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines by lupeol measured using cytometric bead array immunoassay,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 9–13, 2010.
- C.-T. K. Tseng and G. R. Klimpel, “Binding of the hepatitis C virus envelope protein E2 to CD81 inhibits natural killer cell functions,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 195, no. 1, pp. 43–49, 2002.
- Y. Xiao, J. Hendriks, P. Langerak, H. Jacobs, and J. Borst, “CD27 is acquired by primed B cells at the centroblast stage and promotes germinal center formation,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 172, no. 12, pp. 7432–7441, 2004.
- Z.-X. Liu, S. Govindadarajan, S. Okamoto, and G. Dennert, “NK cells cause liver injury and facilitate the induction of T cell- mediated immunity to a viral liver infection,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 164, no. 12, pp. 6480–6486, 2000.
- M. J. Koziel, “Cellular immune responses against hepatitis C virus,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. S25–S31, 2005.
- J. You, H. Sriplung, A. Geater et al., “Impact of viral replication inhibition by entecavir on peripheral T lymphocyte subpopulations in chronic hepatitis B patients,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 8, article 123, 2008.
- T. J. Tang, J. Kwekkeboom, S. Mancham et al., “Intrahepatic CD8+ T-lymphocyte response is important for therapy-induced viral clearance in chronic hepatitis B infection,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 2005.
- H. Zhang, L.-Y. Wu, S. Zhang, et al., “Anti-hepatitis B virus X protein in sera is one of the markers of development of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer mediated by HBV,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2009, Article ID 289068, 6 pages, 2009.
- J. N. Stoop, R. G. van der Molen, C. C. Baan et al., “Regulatory T cells contribute to the impaired immune response in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection,” Hepatology, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 771–778, 2005.
- S. Sobue, T. Nomura, T. Ishikawa et al., “Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles and their relationship to clinical features in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection,” Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 544–551, 2001.
- A. Bertoletti, M. M. D'Elios, C. Boni et al., “Different cytokine profiles of intrahepatic T cells in chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections,” Gastroenterology, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 193–199, 1997.
- Y. Lee, U.-S. Park, I. Choi, S. K. Yoon, Y. M. Park, and Y. I. Lee, “Human interleukin 6 gene is activated by hepatitis B virus-X protein in human hepatoma cells,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 1711–1717, 1998.
- A. Antonelli, C. Ferri, S. M. Ferrari et al., “High interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha serum levels in hepatitis C infection associated or not with mixed cryoglobulinemia,” Clinical Rheumatology, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1179–1185, 2009.
- C.-H. Hung, C.-M. Lee, C.-H. Chen et al., “Association of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines with insulin resistance in chronic hepatitis C,” Liver International, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1086–1093, 2009.
- L. Wan, Y.-J. Kung, Y.-J. Lin et al., “Th1 and Th2 cytokines are elevated in HCV-infected SVR(-) patients treated with interferon-α,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 379, no. 4, pp. 855–860, 2009.
- G. Feldmann, H. D. Nischalke, J. Nattermann et al., “Induction of interleukin-6 by hepatitis C virus core protein in hepatitis C-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia and B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 15, pp. 4491–4498, 2006.
- E.-C. Shin, U. Protzer, A. Untergasser et al., “Liver-directed gamma interferon gene delivery in chronic hepatitis C,” Journal of Virology, vol. 79, no. 21, pp. 13412–13420, 2005.
- A. Penna, G. Del Prete, A. Cavalli et al., “Predominant T-helper 1 cytokine profile of hepatitis B virus nucleocapsid-specific T cells in acute self-limited hepatitis B,” Hepatology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1022–1027, 1997.
- A. A. Byrnes, D.-Y. Li, K. Park et al., “Modulation of the IL-12/IFN-γ axis by IFN-α therapy for hepatitis C,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 825–834, 2007.
- J. Jo and R. Thimme, “Immune responses to hepatitis B and C,” Hepatology International, vol. 4, supplement 1, pp. S80–S85, 2010.
- D. D. Anthony, A. B. Post, H. Valdez, D. L. Peterson, M. Murphy, and P. S. Heeger, “ELISPOT analysis of hepatitis C virus protein-specific IFN-γ-producing peripheral blood lymphocytes in infected humans with and without cirrhosis,” Clinical Immunology, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 232–240, 2001.
- K. Wursthorn, M. Lutgehetmann, M. Dandri et al., “Peginterferon alpha-2b plus adefovir induce strong cccDNA decline and HBsAg reduction in patients with chronic hepatitis B,” Hepatology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 675–684, 2006.