Table 1: Summary of the diverse vector approaches used for the generation of CTLs.

VectorOutcomeRef

VLP - Recombinant porcine parvovirus encoding LCMV-NP- Strong CTL responses without a need for adjuvant, the CTL activity persisted in vivo for 8 months [65]
- Complete protection against lethal LCMV infection

VLP - HIV-p55gag-VLP- Without adjuvant, long lived CTL responses against multiple HIV-1 p55gag epitopes were detected [70]

VLP - Papaya mosaic VLP (LCMV-GP33)- Immunized mice develop GP33-specific CTLs, which rapidly expanded post-LCMV challenge and enhanced the protection against LCMV infection in dose-dependent manner[67]

VLP - HBV-VLP (LCMV-GP33)- TAP-deficient DC and macrophages mediated cross-presentation of GP33 in vivo and in vitro[69]

VLP- VSV encoding HPV-16 E7protein- anti-E7 CD8+ T-cell response which conferred protection against E7 expressing tumor cells[74]

Microsphere - Co-injected PPV-VLP- Results in the priming of potent CTL responses in CD4 and CD40-independent manner [80]
- Protective CTL against the OVA-bearing melanoma

Microsphere - PLGA-MSs- Vaccination enhanced CTL responses when OVA was coencapsulated with CpG or polyI:C [84]
- Single immunization with coencapsulated MS-OVA-CpG induced efficient CTLs and protected against infection with OVA-expressing vaccinia virus
- Clonal expansion of primary and secondary antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells [60]
- Potency demonstrated by protective immune responses to either infection or tumors

Liposomes -liposome-Ag-nucleic acid complexes (LANAC)- TLR3 or TLR9 were able to enhance CTL cross-priming independent of CD4+ T-cell help [56]
- Antigen-specific CD8+ T cells were functionally active and persisted for long periods in tissues
- Effective immunity against B16 tumors and M. tuberculosis

Archaeosome (M. smithii)- Encoding OVA- Single injection evoked profound primary CTL response [85]
- Recall response observed >300 days
- Protective CD8+ T cells induced in TLR2-deficient mice
- Resisted tumor growth of B16OVA melanoma cells [92]
- Enhanced CTL responses in the absence of IL-12 and IFN- 𝛾
- CTL activity was undetectable in perforin-deficient mice [93]
- Long-term responses in CD4+ T cell deficient mice
- Potent memory CTL response to OVA lasting for 154 days