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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 254521, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/254521
Review Article

The Role of Lipopeptidophosphoglycan in the Immune Response to Entamoeba histolytica

1Medical Research Unit on Immunochemistry, Specialties Hospital, National Medical Centre “Siglo XXI”, Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS), 06720 Mexico City, Mexico
2Gastrointestinal Surgery Department, Specialties Hospital, National Medical Centre “Siglo XXI”, Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS), 06720 Mexico City, Mexico
3Graduate Program on Immunology, National School of Biological Sciences, National Polytechnic Institute, 11350 Mexico City, Mexico
4Graduate Program on Molecular Biomedicine and Biotechnology, National School of Biological Sciences, National Polytechnic Institute, 11350 Mexico City, Mexico
5Graduate Program on Chemical and Biological Sciences, National School of Biological Sciences, National Polytechnic Institute, 11350 Mexico City, Mexico

Received 30 June 2009; Accepted 12 October 2009

Academic Editor: Abhay R. Satoskar

Copyright © 2010 Isabel Wong-Baeza et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The sensing of Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) by innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), is the first step in the inflammatory response to pathogens. Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of amebiasis, has a surface molecule with the characteristics of a PAMP. This molecule, which was termed lipopeptidophosphoglycan (LPPG), is recognized through TLR2 and TLR4 and leads to the release of cytokines from human monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells; LPPG-activated dendritic cells have increased expression of costimulatory molecules. LPPG activates NKT cells in a CD1d-dependent manner, and this interaction limits amebic liver abscess development. LPPG also induces antibody production, and anti-LPPG antibodies prevent disease development in animal models of amebiasis. Because LPPG is recognized by both the innate and the adaptive immune system (it is a “Pamptigen”), it may be a good candidate to develop a vaccine against E. histolytica infection and an effective adjuvant.