Table 1: Some TLR agonists from bacteria, viruses, and fungi (modified from [67, 68]).

TLRMicrobial ligandSource

TLR1/TLR2Triacyl lipopeptidesBacteria
LipoarabinomannanMycobacteria

TLR2PeptidoglycanBacteria
PorinsGram-negative bacteria
Lipoteichoic acidGram-positive bacteria
ZymosanFungi

TLR2/TLR6Diacyl lipopeptidesMycoplasma

TLR3dsRNAVirus

TLR4LPSGram-negative bacteria
PorinsGram-negative bacteria
Respiratory syncytial virus fusion proteinRespiratory syncytial virus

TLR5FlagellinBacteria

TLR7ssRNAVirus

TLR8ssRNAVirus

TLR9CpG DNABacteria, virus

TLR11Uropathogenic bacteria