Table 2: TLR agonists from protozoan and helminth parasites.

TLRParasite ligandSourceReference

TLR2LipopeptidophosphoglycanEntamoeba histolytica (trophozoite)[85]
GlycosylphosphatidylinositolPlasmodium falciparum (merozoite)[76]
Toxoplasma gondii (tachyzoite)[84]
Glycoinositol phospholipidPlasmodium falciparum (merozoite)[76]
Toxoplasma gondii (tachyzoite)[86]
LysophosphatidylserineSchistosoma mansoni (egg and adult worm)[87]
LipophosphoglycanLeishmania major (promastigote)[74]
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol with unsaturated alkyl-glycerolTrypanosoma cruzi (trypomastigote)[81]
Tc52Trypanosoma cruzi (epimastigote)[83]

TLR2/TLR6GlycosylphosphatidylinositolPlasmodium falciparum (schizont)[78]

TLR4LipopeptidophosphoglycanEntamoeba histolytica (trophozoite)[85]
Glycoinositol phospholipid with ceramidesTrypanosoma cruzi (epimastigote)[88]
GlycosylphosphatidylinositolPlasmodium falciparum (merozoite)[76]
Toxoplasma gondii (tachyzoite)[84]
Glycoinositol phospholipidPlasmodium falciparum (merozoite)[76]
Toxoplasma gondii (tachyzoite)[86]
PhosphorylcholineFilarial nematode[89]
Lacto-N-fucopentaose IIISchistosoma mansoni[90]

TLR9HemozoinPlasmodium falciparum[91]
DNATrypanosoma brucei[92]
Trypanosoma cruzi[92]
Leishmania major[93]
Entamoeba histolytica[94]

TLR11Profilin-like moleculeToxoplasma gondii[95]