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Figure 3: Immune suppressive mechanisms in HCV infection. HCV mutates its amino acid sequence to escape from immune surveillance, inhibits type 1 IFN production, and suppress NK cell function, T-cell function, and DC function. In addition, HCV induces Tr cells, which suppress T-cell function. Abbreviated terms: CTL, Cytotoxic T lymphocyte; pDC, plasmacytoid dendritic cells; mDC, myeloid dendritic cells; Th cell, helper T cell; NK cell, natural killer cell; IFN, interferon.