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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 294389, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/294389
Review Article

Cytokines and Their STATs in Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniasis

1Department of Microbiology, The Ohio State University, 484 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
2Center for Microbial Interface Biology, The Ohio State University, 484 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA

Received 9 September 2009; Accepted 18 November 2009

Academic Editor: Luis I. Terrazas

Copyright © 2010 Hannah E. Cummings et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cytokines play a critical role in shaping the host immune response to Leishmania infection and directing the development of protective and non-protective immunities during infection. Cytokines exert their biological activities through the activation and translocation of transcription factors into the nucleus whether they drive the expression of specific cytokine-responsive genes. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STATs) are transcription factors which play a critical role in mediating signaling downstream of cytokine receptors and are important for shaping the host immune response during Leishmania infection. Here we discuss the signature cytokines and their associated STATs involved in the host immune response during cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.