357106.fig.002
Figure 2: Overview to helminth and DC interactions. Helminth products are recognized by receptors such as TLRs, CLRs or Scavenger receptors. These cells remain in an immature state and unresponsive to further TLR stimuli probably due to interaction and signalling of parasite molecules through CLRs. Signalling pathways that implicate ERK phosphorylation, c-Fos up-regulation and expression of SOCS proteins may play a role in downregulation of DC responses particularly by suppressing IL-12 production. Once again, interactions of helminth molecules with CLRs but also with TLRs may be involved in these inhibitory effects. Finally, these helminth-conditioned DC induce a Th2 or Treg lymphocyte responses.