Table 1: Protozoan interactions and their regulatory effects on DC.

ParasiteProductPutative DC Receptor ¶Effect on DCEffect on DC upon TLR stimuliRef.

Plasmodium
P. bergheiInfectionN.D. Tcell priming IL-12p70,
endocytic activity[22]

IL-10
InfectionTLR9Immature
T cell priming, shorter DC/T cell interactions CD40, CD86,
MHCII, IL-12p70[6, 23, 24, 30]
IL-10
P. yoelii Treg*[21, 31]
Soluble FactorsN.D. IL-12 CD40, CD86,[27]
MHCII, IL-12

P. vivaxInfectionN.D. mDC:pDCN.D.[6, 12]
Treg*
P. chabaudiInfectionN.D. CD8- DCN.D.[13]
Th2*

P. falciparumMerozoite N.D. IL-12p70, IFNγ*N.D.
ERK,IL-10,[2, 20]
IL-10*
HemozoinN.D. Immature Differentiation MigrationN.D.[19, 28]
Soluble extractsN.D. Immature IL-12[27]
IL-12

Leishmania
L. majorPromastigote AmastigoteN.D.ImmatureN.D.[55]
IL-10
LPGsTLR2 Motility MigrationN.D.[54]
PGs IL-12p40, IFNγ* IL-12p40[56]
IL-4*, IL-10*
ESN.D.ImmatureN.D.
DC-SIGN, IL-10,[57]
IL-12p70

L. amazonensis  PromastigoteN.D.Immature IL-12p40, IL-10
ERK IL-12p70,[45, 48, 49, 65]
IL-12p40 IL-6

L. mexicana Promastigote N.D. ImmatureN.D.
IL-12 Apoptosis[50]
LPGN.D.IL-12 N.D.
NFkB[51]
L. donovaniPromastigoteN.D.Immature N.D.
Migration, CCR7,
CD11b, CD51,[52, 53]
CD86, IL-12p70
ESN.D.Immature N.D.
DC-SIGN, IL-10, IL-12p70[57]

Trypanosoma
T. cruziInfection and Soluble Factors N.D. ImmatureMigration, IL-12, TNFα,
DC number, IL-6, HLA-DR,[66, 69, 70]
T cell priming,CD40,CD86
IL-12, TNF-α
Trypomastigote N.D.ImmatureTNF-α,IL-12p70, IL-6,
TGF-β, IL-10 CD40, HLA-DR,[68, 71]
IL-10
GIPLs N.D.IL-12, TNFα, TNF-α,IL-12, IL-10,
IL-10 CD83, CD80, CD86,[67]
CD40, HLA-DR
Sialyted structuresSiglec-EN.D. IL-12p40, IL12p70
IL-10[17]

Toxoplasma
T. gondiiInfection N.D.N.D. IL-12p40[87, 91]
TachyzoitesN.D.ImmatureIL-12p40,
Motility Migration TNF-α, MHCII[87, 89, 92]
T cell priming
Soluble FactorsN.D.ImmatureN.D.[91, 93]
DC attraction
Endogenous LXA4 parasite-inducedFRPL-1 SOCS2N.D.[16]
AhR IL-12

Giardia
Giardia lamblia   parasite extractsN.D.CD80, CD86, IL-10[94]
CD40 IL-12, MHCII,
IL-12, TNF-α,CD80,CD86
IL-10

¶ Involved in modulatory effects on DC.
*T cell response.