Table 2: Helminth products interactions and their regulatory effects on DC

Parasite Product Putative DC Receptor¶ Effect on DC Effect on DC upon TLR stimuli Ref.

Nematodes
B. malayiMicrofilarie aliveN.D.Immature MIP-1, IL-12p70, IL-1α, IFN-α, IL-12p40, MyD88, NFkB (p50-p65)
TLR4,TLR3
IL-8, RANTES,[103]
TNF- α, IL-1 α, IL-1β,
SOCS1, SOCS3
DC apoptosis
Microfilarie AgN.D. CD80, CD40, MHCI IL-12p40,
IL-12p70, IL-10 [10]
N. brasiliensisNESN.D. OX40L, CD86Th2* IL-12p70[105]
A. suumPIN.D.Immature IL-12p40[9]
PCFN.D.ImmatureIL-12,
CD40, CD86[106]
GlycosphingolipidsN.D.Immature IL-12p40,
(PC cointained but PC independent)TNFα, CD86[107]
A. vitaeES-62 (PC contain)TLR4TLR4, CD80 *IL-12, TNFα
IL-12p40 (low), IL-10
TNFα (low)
Th2*[108, 110]
H. polygyrusESN.D.ImmatureIL-12, TNFα
IFNγ*, IL-4*MCP1, RANTES,[113, 114]
IL-10(Treg)* MHCII, CD40, CD86
CalreticulinSR-AN.D.N.D.[116]

Trematodes
S. mansoniSEADC-SIGN, MR, MGLImmature
DC-SIGN,MR, IL-12p40,IL-12p70, TNFα, IL-6, MHCII, CD80, CD86
DCIR, MGL,[18, 124126]
Jagged 2,TLR4
Th2* IL-10
LNFPIIITLR4ImmatureN.D.
ERK, NFkB,[15, 128]
Th2*
Lysophospahtidyl-serineTLR2 ERK, c-fos, IFNγ*[11, 115]
Th2*, Treg*

Cestodes
E. granulosusAgBN.D.IRAKp, NF-kB,IL-12p70,
TNF- 𝛼 l o w , TNFα, IL-6,
IL- 1 0 l o w , IL- 6 l o w ,IL-10, HLA-DR
Th2*CD80, CD86[14]
T. crassicepsESN.D. MHCII, IL-15, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, TNFα, CD80, CD86, CD40, CCR7, IFNγ*
(carbohydrate dependent)Th2*

¶ Involved in modulatory effects on DC.
* T cell response.