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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 431894, 6 pages
Research Article

A Metabonomic Comparison of Urinary Changes in Zucker and GK Rats

1Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China
2School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035, China
3College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China

Received 29 June 2010; Accepted 14 September 2010

Academic Editor: Ronald Tjeerdema

Copyright © 2010 Liang-Cai Zhao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


To further investigate pathogenesis and pathogenic process of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we compared the urinary metabolic profiling of Zucker obese and Goto-kakizaki (GK) rats by NMR-based metabonomics. Principal component analysis (PCA) on urine samples of both models rats indicates markedly elevated levels of creatine/creatinine, dimethylamine, and acetoacetate, with concomitantly declined levels of citrate, 2-ketoglurarate, lactate, hippurate, and succinate compared with control rats, respectively. Simultaneously, compared with Zucker obese rats, the GK rats show decreased levels of trimethylamine, acetate, and choline, as well as increased levels of creatine/creatinine, acetoacetate, alanine, citrate, 2-ketoglutarate, succinate, lactate, and hippurate. This study demonstrates metabolic similarities between the two stages of T2DM, including reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and increased ketone bodies production. In addition, compared with Zucker obese rats, the GK rats have enhanced concentration of energy metabolites, which indicates energy metabolic changes produced in hyperglycemia stage more than in insulin resistance stage.