Table 1: Summary of the changes in relative amounts of urine metabolites of different group rats indicated by 1H NMR spectra (mean ± SD).

𝛿   1HMetabolitesZucker leanZucker obeseWistarGK

1.33Lactate 1 . 6 7 ± 0 . 1 2 1 . 1 0 ± 0 . 1 1 2 . 9 7 ± 0 . 9 5 1 . 8 6 ± 0 . 1 7
1.46Alanine 0 . 4 4 ± 0 . 0 1 0 . 3 7 ± 0 . 0 3 0 . 6 3 ± 0 . 0 7 0 . 6 6 ± 0 . 0 4
1.93Acetate 0 . 9 8 ± 0 . 1 9 1 . 3 2 ± 0 . 1 6 1 . 5 4 ± 0 . 6 8 1 . 0 4 ± 0 . 1 0
2.14Methionine 0 . 7 3 ± 0 . 0 7 0 . 7 5 ± 0 . 0 8 0 . 9 5 ± 0 . 0 6 1 . 3 7 ± 0 . 1 2
2.26Acetoacetate 0 . 7 2 ± 0 . 1 7 0 . 8 0 ± 0 . 0 9 0 . 9 5 ± 0 . 1 0 1 . 1 7 ± 0 . 3 6
2.43Succinate 1 . 2 6 ± 0 . 1 1 1 . 1 1 ± 0 . 1 5 2 . 0 3 ± 0 . 3 4 1 . 8 7 ± 0 . 2 6
2.462-ketoglutarate 1 . 2 2 ± 0 . 2 7 1 . 0 4 ± 0 . 1 0 3 . 9 3 ± 0 . 5 6 3 . 1 3 ± 0 . 4 9
2.52, 2.67Citrate 1 . 9 2 ± 0 . 2 6 1 . 5 5 ± 0 . 3 7 2 . 8 0 ± 0 . 7 4 1 . 7 8 ± 0 . 4 6
2.72Dimethylamine 1 . 2 3 ± 0 . 5 8 1 . 8 4 ± 0 . 1 7 1 . 2 5 ± 0 . 1 8 1 . 6 9 ± 0 . 1 3
3.06Creatine 2 . 6 2 ± 0 . 4 9 3 . 5 2 ± 0 . 2 5 5 . 1 6 ± 0 . 3 3 5 . 8 2 ± 0 . 3 5
3.20Choline 0 . 6 1 ± 0 . 0 4 1 . 4 4 ± 0 . 9 1 1 . 0 0 ± 0 . 1 5 0 . 9 9 ± 0 . 1 0
3.26, 3.42Taurine 2 . 1 2 ± 0 . 4 3 2 . 8 8 ± 0 . 3 8 2 . 5 3 ± 0 . 2 1
7.34Phenylalanine 0 . 5 0 ± 0 . 0 4 0 . 5 0 ± 0 . 1 0 0 . 5 1 ± 0 . 0 4 0 . 7 0 ± 0 . 2 2
7.55, 7.64Hippurate 0 . 8 7 ± 0 . 0 5 0 . 2 3 ± 0 . 0 5 0 . 9 8 ± 0 . 2 2 0 . 7 5 ± 0 . 0 8

𝑃 < . 0 5 and 𝑃 < . 0 1 compared with their corresponding control rats, respectively.