About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 476279, 19 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/476279
Review Article

Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

Division of Diabetes, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Dr, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA

Received 7 December 2009; Accepted 20 January 2010

Academic Editor: Guy M. Benian

Copyright © 2010 Muhammad A. Abdul-Ghani and Ralph A. DeFronzo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is manifested by decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and results from impaired insulin signaling and multiple post-receptor intracellular defects including impaired glucose transport, glucose phosphorylation, and reduced glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis. Insulin resistance is a core defect in type 2 diabetes, it is also associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Recent studies have reported a mitochondrial defect in oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle in variety of insulin resistant states. In this review, we summarize the cellular and molecular defects that contribute to the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.