Table 1: Defects in Glucose Metabolism in Insulin Resistant Conditions.

Insulin signaling(1) Reduced insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation
(2) Decreased IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation
(3) Decreased PI3-kinase activation

Glucose transport(1) Impaired GLUT4 translocation
(2) Impaired GLUT 12 translocation

Glucose metabolism(1) Decreased glucose phosphorylation
(2) Decreased glucose oxidation and glycolytic FLUX
(3) Impaired glycogen synthase