Table 3: Main vaccines in clinical trials for HCV.

VaccineSubjectStageOutcomeRef.

Peptides (core, NS3, NS4)/poly-L-arginine (IC41)60 HLA- A 2 + chronic HCV nonrespondersII67% responding to peptide plus adjuvant treatment versus 17% to peptide alone; 3 patients with transient decline of serum HCV RNA ( > 1 log)[81]

Peptide (core)/ emulsified with ISA5126 chronic HCV patientsIWell tolerated with no severe toxicity; 15/25 responder; 2/25 with 1 log decline on HCV RNA [82]

Peptides (NS3)/Virosome30 healthy volunteersINo result releasedNCT004
45419

MVA-HCV NS3/NS4/NS5B (TG4040)15 chronic HCV patientsIWell tolerated; 6/15 with decline on HCV RNA (0.5–1.4 log)[83]

HCV gpE1/E2 glycoproteins/MF5960 healthy volunteersINo result releasedNCT005
00747

Recombinant yeast transfect with HCV NS3-core fusion protein (GI5005)Chronic HCV patientsIIWell tolerate and showed better virology response in chronic patients after triple therapy [84]

HCV core protein/ ISCOMATRIX30 healthy volunteersIWell tolerated with mild local redness; all developed antibody response, 7/8 showed cytokine production & 2/8 showed cytotoxic T cell response in the group with highest antigen dose (50  𝜇 g )[85]

NS3/4A DNA vaccine (ChronVac-C)12 chronic HCV patientsI/IIaSafe, immunogenic with transient effect on serum viral load [86]

Recombinant core protein & core/E1/E2 DNA vaccine (CIGB-230)15 chronic HCV patientsISafe, immunogenic, and stabilized liver function with persistence detection of HCV RNA[87]