Table 1: Recent clinical trials using RNA-transfected DCs.

Cancer typeRNA source/targetVaccination scheduleNumber of study subjectsImmunological responseClinical responseReference

Colorectal cancerTotal autologous tumor106 DCs pulsed with 25  𝜇 g RNA and KLH intravenously 4 times on monthly intervals.15NANA[73]

Adenocar-cinoma (lung)Total autologous tumor3 × 107 DCs transfected with 300  𝜇 g RNA intravenously, followed by 106 DCs transfected with 10  𝜇 g RNA intradermally 4 times on monthly intervals.11/1NA[93]

Pancreatic cancerCEA107 DCs transfected with 20  𝜇 g RNA intradermally 6 times on monthly intervals.3NANA[65]

ProstatePSA107–5 × 107 DCs transfected with 1.5  𝜇 g RNA/106 DCs intravenously, 3 times biweekly with escalating dose and 107 DCs intradermally.169/9NA[64]

CEA-expressing cancersCEA107-108 DCs transfected with 2  𝜇 g RNA/106 DCs intravenously and 0–106 trasnfected DCs intradermally 4 times biweekly.42NANA[94]

RCCTotal autologous tumor107–5 × 107 DCs transfected with 50  𝜇 g RNA/107 DCs intravenously, 3 times biweekly with escalating dose and 107 DCs intradermally.156/7NA[72]

Brain cancerTotal autologous tumor0.5–5 × 107 DCs/m2 transfected with 5  𝜇 g RNA/ 106 DCs intravenously and 0.5 × 107 DCs/m2 intradermally, 3 times biweekly with escalating dose, 3 times at 3-month intervals.9NA2/7 SD[95]

Neuroblas-tomaTotal autologous tumor0.5–5 × 107 DCs/m2 transfected with 5  𝜇 g RNA/106 DCs intravenously and 0.5 × 107 DCs/m2 intradermally, 3 times biweekly with excalating dose, 3 times at 3-month intervals.11NA1/7 SD[96]

RCC, OVATotal tumor from clear cell carcinoma tissueArm 1: 107 DCs electroporated with 5  𝜇 g RNA/106 DCs intradermally, 3 times biweekly, 18  𝜇 g/kg DAB389 IL-2 prior to vaccination.
Arm 2: 107 DCs electroporated with 5  𝜇 g RNA/106 DCs intradermally, 3 times biweekly.
11
Arm 1: 7
Arm 2: 4
10/11
Arm 1: 7/7
Arm 2: 3/4
NA[83]

ProstatehTERT, LAMP hTERTArm 1: 107 DCs electroporated with 1  𝜇 g hTERT RNA/106 DCs intradermally, 3 (6 patients) or 6 (5 patients) times weekly.
Arm 2: 107 DCs electroporated with 1  𝜇 g LAMP hTERT RNA/106 DCs intradermally, 3 (6 patients) or 6 (3 patients) times weekly.
20
Arm 1: 11
Arm 2: 9
17/18NA[97]

ProstateTotal tumor from prostate cancer cell lines DU145, LNCaP, PC-32 × 107 electroporated DCs intranodally or intradermally, at least 4 times weekly.1912/1911/19 SD[98]

MelanomaTotal autologous tumorArm 1: 2 × 107 electroporated DCs intradermally 4 times weekly.
Arm 2: 2 × 107 electroporated DCs intranodally 4 times weekly.
22
Arm 1: 10
Arm 2: 12
9/192/20[68]

MelanomaMage-A3, Mage-C2, tyrosinase, gp1001.25 × 107 electroporated TriMix DCs intradermally, 4 times biweekly.32/2NA[71]

NA: Not applicable; SD: Stable disease.