Table 2: Recent clinical trials using RNA.

Cancer typeRNAVaccination scheduleNumber of study subjectsImmunological responseClinical responseReference

MelanomaTotal tumor200  𝜇 g naked RNA intradermally, biweekly for 8 weeks, followed by monthly injections for 6 months. 150  𝜇 g GM-CSF subcutaneously 24 h after RNA injection.15NA2/13 MR
3/13 NED
[5]

MelanomaMelan-A, tyrosinase, gp100, Mage-A1, Mage-A3, survivinArm 1: 3.2–80  𝜇 g RNA per antigen + 128  𝜇 g protamine intradermally on days 1, 3, 5, weeks 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 15, 19. 200  𝜇 g GM-CSF subcutaneously 24 h after RNA injection.
Arm 2: 3.2–80  𝜇 g RNA per antigen + 128  𝜇 g protamine + 4 mg KLH intradermally on days 1, 3, 5, weeks 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 15, 19. 200  𝜇 g GM-CSF subcutaneously 24 h after RNA injection.
21
Arm 1: 11
Arm 2: 10
Vaccine directed T cells: 2/4Arm 1: 1/11 CR
4/11 NED
Arm 2: 1/10 NED
[99]

RCCMUC1, CEA, Her-2/neu, telomerase, surviving, MAGE-1Arm 1: 20  𝜇 g naked RNA per antigen intradermally on days 0, 14, 28, 42, followed by monthly injections. 100  𝜇 g/m2 GM-CSF subcutaneously 24 h after RNA injection.
Arm 2: 50  𝜇 g naked RNA per antigen intradermally on days 0–3, 7–10, 28, 42, followed by monthly injections. 250  𝜇 g/m2 GM-CSF subcutaneously 24 h after RNA injection.
30,
Arm 1: 14
Arm 2: 16
CD4+ ELISpot: 3/7
CD8+ ELISpot: 8/9
CD8+ Cr-Release Assay: 7/11
Arm 1:
1/14 PR
6/14 SD
Arm 2:
9/16 SD
[81]

CR: Complete response; MR: Mixed response; NA: Not applicable; NED: No evidence of disease; PR: Partial response; SD: Stable disease.