Table 3: Immunotherapy in AML; the advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches that have been investigated in clinical trials [82].

StrategyAdvantageDisadvantage

Peptide vaccinationEasy to produce and administerSelection of patients with certain HLA types and high antigen expression in the malignant cells
Normal dendritic cells loaded with AML-associated peptidesPresentation of several leukemia-specific and leukemia-associated antigensWork-consuming in vitro procedures for preparation and antigenic loading (lysates, mRNA).
Whole tumor cell vaccines with irradiated AML cells:
 (i) Leukemic cells plus
  systemic administration ofRelatively easy to prepare, several antigens presentedClinical side effects
  immunostimulatory
  cytokines
  (ii) Modified leukemic cellsSeveral antigens presentedComplicated and work-consuming ex vivo handling
      expressing GM-CSF or
      CD80+IL2
Leukemic dendritic cellsPresentation of several leukemia-specific and leukemia-associated antigensHeterogeneity between patients with regard to efficiency; work-consuming in vitro procedures for preparation and antigenic loading (lysates, mRNA).
IL-2 therapyEasy to administer, induces innate and specific immunitySerious side effects