Table 1: Classification of published therapies of experimental pulmonary hypertension.

(Ref.)

Antimitogenic (particularly towards PA-SMCs)
 PDGF inhibitors[4]
 Endothelin receptor blockers[1619, 29]
 Prostacyclin (analogue)[510, 15, 19]
 Serotonin transporter inhibitors[21]
 Serotonin receptor blockers[23, 24]
 Serotonic re-uptake inhibitor[22]
 PDE 4/5 and 3/4 inhibitors[9, 10, 2529]
 Caveolin-1 peptide[30]
 Estradiol (derivatives)[3134]
 Amlodipine[38]
 Rapamycin[42]
 Cell therapy using differentiated cells transduced with eNOS gene[60, 62, 63, 68]
 Prostacyclin synthase gene[55, 56]
 NF-κB inhibitor[44]
 Serine-elastase inhibitors[3]
Proendothelial function, vasodilatation, and proangiogenesis
 Rho-kinase inhibitors[1115]
 Statins[3537]
 Nicorandil[39]
 Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor[43]
 L-arginine[50]
 Prostacyclin (analogue)[510, 15, 19]
 Endothelin receptor blockers[1619, 29]
 PDE 4/5 and 3/4 inhibitors[9, 10, 2529]
 Adrenomedullin[41]
 Prostacyclin synthase gene[55, 56]
 Angiopoietin-1 gene[57]
 Cell therapy using EPCs and MSCs[59, 6365, 6871]
 Cell therapy using differentiated cells transduced with eNOS gene[60, 62, 63, 68]
 Cell therapy using differentiated cells transduced with VEGF gene[61, 62]
Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative
 Serotonin receptor blockers[23, 24]
 Amlodipine[38]
 Nicorandil[39]
 Statins[3537]
 C-type natriuretic factor[40]
 Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist[45]
 Antibodies to monocyte chemotactic and activating factor/MCP1[46]
 Inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase[47]
 Inhibitor of lipoxygenase pathways[51]
 Antimonocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene[54]
 Interleukin-10 gene[58]
 Extracellular superoxide dismutase gene[53]

Abbreviations PA-SMCs: pulmonary artery-derived smooth muscle cells; PDGF: platelet-derived growth factor; PDE: phosphodiesterase; NO: nitric oxide; EPC: endothelial progenitor cells; MSC: mesenchymal stem cells; eNOS: endothelial NO-synthase; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor; MCP1: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1.