Table 1: Suppression of experimental immunological disorders by helminthes.

Animal modelsTh typesHelminthsTreatmentProposed suppressive mechanismsRefs

Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)Th17Schistosoma mansoniInfectionIL-17 , TNF- 𝛼 , IL-6 , RANKL , Anti-collagen IgG [47]
Ascaris suumWorm Ag [37]
Acanthocheilonema viteaePurified Ag (ES-62)IFN- 𝛾 , TNF- 𝛼 , IL-6 , Anti-collagen IgG [78]
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)Th17Schistosoma mansoniInfectionIL-12p40 , IFN- 𝛾 , TNF- 𝛼 , IL-4 [24]
EggIFN- 𝛾 , IL-4 , TGF- 𝛽 , IL-10 [25]
Schistosoma japonicumEgg AgIFN- 𝛾 , IL-4 [26]
Fasciola hepaticaInfectionIFN- 𝛾 , IL-17 , Dependent on TGF 𝛽 [49]
Trichinella spiralisInfection [27]
Type 1 diabetes in NOD miceTh1?Schistosoma mansoniInfection, EggsInhibition of Ab class switch (Anti-insulin IgG ) [81]
Egg AgTreg [32]
Litomosoides sigmodontisInfection, Worm AgIL-4 , IL-5 , Treg [39]
Heligmosomoides polygyrusInfectionIndependent of IL-10 and Treg [40]
Streptozotocin-induced diabetesTh1?Taenia crassicepsInfectionAAM 𝜙 [45]
TNBS/DNBS-induced colitisTh1? / Th17?Schistosoma mansoniInfectionIL-2 , IL-4 [30]
EggsIFN- 𝛾 , IL-4 [29]
Worm AgIFN- 𝛾 , IL-17 , TGF- 𝛽 , IL-10 [28]
Schistosoma japonicumEgg AgIFN- 𝛾 , IL-4 , IL-10 , Treg [31]
Hymenolepis diminutaInfectionIL-10 [41, 44]
Piroxicam-induced colitisTh17?Heligmosomoides polygyrusInfectionIL-17 , Independent of IL-10 [48]
DSS-induced colitisTh17? / Th2?Schistosoma mansoniInfection (male worm)Macrophage infiltration [64]
Systemic anaphylaxisTh2Schistosoma mansoniInfectionIL-10-producing Bcell [34]
Asthma/Airway hypersensitivity or inflammationTh2Schistosoma mansoniInfection (male worm)IL-5 , IL-10 [33]
Schistosoma japonicumEgg Ag, EggsTreg [35]
Heligmosomoides polygyrusInfectionTreg [36]
Ascaris suumPurified Ag (PAS-1)IL-4 , IL-5 , Eotaxin , RANTES , IL-10 [38]
Worm AgIL-4 , IL-5 , Eotaxin , IgE [42]
Litomosoides sigmodontisInfectionTGF 𝛽 , Treg [43]

:downregulation, :upregulation