Figure 4: The systemic Th2 response to SEA is accompanied by local induction of IL-10 in the pancreas and liver. Increased proportions of CD4+ T cells expressing IL-4 were seen in the spleen (a), the pancreas (b), and the liver (c). In the pancreas and liver, SEA treatment triggered IL-10 production from Th1 cells. (d) Increased mRNA for Th2 and regulatory cytokines in the pancreas of mice treated with schistosome antigens are shown. Six-week-old female NOD mice were injected i.p. with 50 g SEA on day 0 and day 7, and lymphocytes from spleen, pancreas, and liver were collected for FACS and RT-qPCR analysis on day 10. Data shown are the responses of 5-6 mice per group for (a)–(c) or a pool of three mice per condition for (d). Statistical analysis by Mann Whitney U test, two-tailed.