- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 823131, 6 pages
Discrepancy between mRNA and Protein Expression of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Bronchial Epithelium Induced by Sulfur Mustard
1Chemical Injury Research Center (CIRC), Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 114359-44711, Iran
2Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran 1157-14665, Iran
3Research Center of Molecular Biology, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 114359-44711, Iran
4Division of Histology, Department of Rehabilitation, School of Medical Sciences & Welfare, Tohoku Bunka Gakuen University, Sendai 981-8551, Japan
Received 22 October 2009; Accepted 8 March 2010
Academic Editor: Rita Casadio
Copyright © 2010 Majid Ebrahimi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- T. C. Marrs, R. L. Maynard, and F. R. Sidell, “Mustard gas,” in Chamical Warfare Agents, Toxicology and Treatment, chapter 6, pp. 139–173, Jahn Wiley & Sons, London, UK, 1996.
- United Nations Security Council, Report of the Mission Dispatched by the Secretary General to Investigate Allegations of the Use of Chemical Weapons in the Conflict between the Islamic Republic of Iran and Iraq. S/19823, United Nations, New York, NY, USA, 1988.
- S. Khateri, M. Ghanei, S. Keshavarz, M. Soroush, and D. Haines, “Incidence of lung, eye, and skin lesions as late complications in 34000 Iranians with wartime exposure to mustard agent,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1136–1143, 2003.
- M. Ghanei, J. Aslani, S. Khateri, and K. Hamadanizadeh, “Public health status of the civil population of Sardasht 15 years following large-scale war time exposure to sulfur mustard,” Journal of Burns and Surgical Wound Care, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 7, 2003.
- J. W. W. Thomason, T. W. Rice, and A. P. Milstone, “Bronchiolitis obliterans in a survivor of a chemical weapons attack,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 290, no. 5, pp. 598–599, 2003.
- M. Ghanei, M. Mokhtari, M. M. Mohammad, and J. Aslani, “Bronchiolitis obliterans following exposure to sulfur mustard: chest high resolution computed tomography,” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 164–169, 2004.
- P. Laohaburanakit, A. Chan, and R. P. Allen, “Bronchiolitis obliterans,” Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 259–274, 2003.
- M. Estenne, J. R. Maurer, A. Boehler, et al., “Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome 2001: an update of the diagnostic criteria,” Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 297–310, 2002.
- A. B. Chang, J. P. Masel, and B. Masters, “Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans: clinical, radiological and pulmonary function sequelae,” Pediatric Radiology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 23–29, 1998.
- A. Boehler, P. Vogt, R. Speich, W. Weder, and E. W. Russi, “Bronchiolitis obliterans in a patient with localized scleroderma treated with D-penicillamine,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1317–1319, 1996.
- K. D. Markopoulou, C. D. Cool, T. L. Elliot, et al., “Obliterative bronchiolitis: varying presentations and clinicopathological correlation,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 20–30, 2002.
- M. Ghanei, M. Ghayumi, N. Ahakzani, et al., “Noninvasive diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans due to sulfur mustard exposure: could high-resolution computed tomography give us a clue?” Radiologia Medica, vol. 115, pp. 413–420, 2010.
- M. Ghanei, H. D. Tazelaar, M. Chilosi, et al., “An International collaborative pathologic study of surgical lung biopsies from mustard gas-exposed patients,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 102, no. 6, pp. 825–830, 2008.
- M. Ghanei, M. Shohrati, M. Jafari, S. Ghaderi, F. Alaeddini, and J. Aslani, “N-acetylcysteine improves the clinical conditions of mustard gas-exposed patients with normal pulmonary function test,” Basic and Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, vol. 103, no. 5, pp. 428–432, 2008.
- G. B. Toews, “Impact of bacterial infections on airway diseases,” European Respiratory Review, vol. 14, no. 95, pp. 62–68, 2005.
- S. L. Johnston, “Impact of viruses on airway diseases,” European Respiratory Review, vol. 14, no. 95, pp. 57–61, 2005.
- L. S. Greene, “Asthma, oxidant stress, and diet,” Nutrition, vol. 15, no. 11-12, pp. 899–907, 1999.
- I. Rahman and I. M. Adcock, “Oxidative stress and redox regulation of lung inflammation in COPD,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 219–242, 2006.
- J. Madill, E. Aghdassi, B. Arendt, et al., “Lung transplantation: does oxidative stress contribute to the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome?” Transplantation Reviews, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 103–110, 2009.
- D. R. Flower, A. C. T. North, and C. E. Sansom, “The lipocalin protein family: structural and sequence overview,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1482, no. 1-2, pp. 9–24, 2000.
- L. Kjeldsen, A. H. Johnsen, H. Sengelov, and N. Borregaard, “Isolation and primary structure of NGAL, a novel protein associated with human neutrophil gelatinase,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 268, no. 14, pp. 10425–10432, 1993.
- S. Triebel, J. Blaser, H. Reinke, and H. Tschesche, “A 25 kDa 2-microglobulin-related protein is a component of the 125 kDa form of human gelatinase,” FEBS Letters, vol. 314, no. 3, pp. 386–388, 1992.
- S.-T. Chu, H.-J. Lin, H.-L. Huang, and Y.-H. Chen, “The hydrophobic pocket of 24p3 protein from mouse uterine luminal fluid: fatty acid and retinol binding activity and predicted structural similarity to lipocalins,” Journal of Peptide Research, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 390–397, 1998.
- L. R. Devireddy, J. G. Teodoro, F. A. Richard, and M. R. Green, “Induction of apoptosis by a secreted lipocalin that is transcriptionally regulated by IL-3 deprivation,” Science, vol. 293, no. 5531, pp. 829–834, 2001.
- D. H. Goetz, M. A. Holmes, N. Borregaard, M. E. Bluhm, K. N. Raymond, and R. K. Strong, “The neutrophil lipocalin NGAL is a bacteriostatic agent that interferes with siderophore-mediated iron acquisition,” Molecular Cell, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1033–1043, 2002.
- B. S. Nielsen, N. Borregaard, J. R. Bundgaard, S. Timshel, M. Sehested, and L. Kjeldsen, “Induction of NGAL synthesis in epithelial cells of human colorectal neoplasia and inflammatory bowel diseases,” Gut, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 414–420, 1996.
- M. H. Roudkenar, Y. Kuwahara, T. Baba, et al., “Oxidative stress induced lipocalin 2 gene expression: addressing its expression under the harmful conditions,” Journal of Radiation Research, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 39–44, 2007.
- M. H. Roudkenar, R. Halabian, Z. Ghasemipour, et al., “Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin acts as a protective factor against toxicity,” Archives of Medical Research, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 560–566, 2008.
- M. R. Nourani, Y. Owada, N. Kitanaka, et al., “Localization of epidermal-type fatty acid binding protein in macrophages in advanced atretic follicles of adult mice,” Journal of Molecular Histology, vol. 36, no. 6-7, pp. 391–400, 2005.
- J. Ryon, L. Bendickson, and M. Nilsen-Hamilton, “High expression in involuting reproductive tissues of uterocalin/24p3, a lipocalin and acute phase protein,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 367, no. 1, pp. 271–277, 2002.
- Z. Tong, X. Wu, D. Ovcharenko, J. Zhu, C.-S. Chen, and J. P. Kehrer, “Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a survival factor,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 391, no. 2, pp. 441–448, 2005.
- H.-J. Lee, E.-K. Lee, K.-J. Lee, S.-W. Hong, Y. Yoon, and J.-S. Kim, “Ectopic expression of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin suppresses the invasion and liver metastasis of colon cancer cells,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 118, no. 10, pp. 2490–2497, 2006.
- S. Han, L. A. Espinoza, H. Liao, A. H. Boulares, and M. E. Smulson, “Protection by antioxidants against toxicity and apoptosis induced by the sulphur mustard analog 2-chloroethylethyl sulphide (CEES) in Jurkat T cells and normal human lymphocytes,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 141, no. 5, pp. 795–802, 2004.
- A. Korkmaz, H. Yaren, T. Topal, and S. Oter, “Molecular targets against mustard toxicity: implication of cell surface receptors, peroxynitrite production, and PARP activation,” Archives of Toxicology, vol. 80, no. 10, pp. 662–670, 2006.
- M. R. Naghii, “Sulfur mustard intoxication, oxidative stress, and antioxidants,” Military Medicine, vol. 167, no. 7, pp. 573–575, 2002.
- R. C. J. Langen, S. H. Korn, and E. F. M. Wouters, “ROS in the local and systemic pathogenesis of COPD,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 226–235, 2003.
- I. Rahman and W. MacNee, “Oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Thorax, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 348–350, 1996.
- K. Husain, S. N. Dube, K. Sugendran, R. Singh, S. Das Gupta, and S. M. Somani, “Effect of topically applied sulphur mustard on antioxidant enzymes in blood cells and body tissues of rats,” Journal of Applied Toxicology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 245–248, 1996.
- V. M. Keatings and P. J. Barnes, “Granulocyte activation markers in induced sputum: comparison between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and normal subjects,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 155, no. 2, pp. 449–453, 1997.
- I. Eichler, M. Nilsson, R. Rath, I. Enander, P. Venge, and D. Y. Koller, “Human neutrophil lipocalin, a highly specific marker for acute exacerbation in cystic fibrosis,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1145–1149, 1999.
- T. Betsuyaku, M. Nishimura, K. Takeyabu, et al., “Neutrophil granule proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from subjects with subclinical emphysema,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 159, no. 6, pp. 1985–1991, 1999.
- R. M. Senior and S. D. Shapiro, “Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and pathogenesis,” in Fishman's Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders, pp. 659–681, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 1997.
- N. Borregaard and J. B. Cowland, “Granules of the human neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocyte,” Blood, vol. 89, no. 10, pp. 3503–3521, 1997.
- M. Shohrati, J. Aslani, M. Eshraghi, F. Alaedini, and M. Ghanei, “Therapeutics effect of N-acetyl cysteine on mustard gas exposed patients: evaluating clinical aspect in patients with impaired pulmonary function test,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 443–448, 2008.