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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 828951, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/828951
Review Article

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR): Balance for Survival in Parasitic Infections

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Temple University, 3400 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
2Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA

Received 31 August 2009; Accepted 10 November 2009

Academic Editor: Luis I. Terrazas

Copyright © 2010 Marion M. Chan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Parasitic infections induce a magnitude of host responses. At the opposite ends of the spectrum are those that ensure the host's needs to eliminate the invaders and to minimize damage to its own tissues. This review analyzes how parasites would manipulate immunity by activating the immunosuppressive nuclear factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) with type 2 cytokines and free fatty acids from arachidonic acid metabolism. PPARs limit the action of type 1 immunity, in which classically activated macrophages act through the production of proinflammatory signals, to spare the parasites. They also favor the development of alternately activated macrophages which control inflammation so the host would not be destroyed. Possibly, the nuclear factors hold a pivotal role in the establishment of chronic infection by delicately balancing the pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling mechanisms and their ligands may be used as combination therapeutics to limit host pathology.