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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 129383, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/129383
Review Article

Physiological Roles of Class I HDAC Complex and Histone Demethylase

Laboratory for Chromatin Dynamics, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0047, Japan

Received 15 July 2010; Accepted 7 September 2010

Academic Editor: Minoru Yoshida

Copyright © 2011 Tomohiro Hayakawa and Jun-ichi Nakayama. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Epigenetic gene silencing is one of the fundamental mechanisms for ensuring proper gene expression patterns during cellular differentiation and development. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are evolutionally conserved enzymes that remove acetyl modifications from histones and play a central role in epigenetic gene silencing. In cells, HDAC forms a multiprotein complex (HDAC complex) in which the associated proteins are believed to help HDAC carry out its cellular functions. Though each HDAC complex contains distinct components, the presence of isoforms for some of the components expands the variety of complexes and the diversity of their cellular roles. Recent studies have also revealed a functional link between HDAC complexes and specific histone demethylases. In this paper, we summarize the distinct and cooperative roles of four class I HDAC complexes, Sin3, NuRD, CoREST, and NCoR/SMRT, with respect to their component diversity and their relationship with specific histone demethylases.