About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 132975, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/132975
Review Article

Sex Chromosome Evolution in Amniotes: Applications for Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries

1Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
2Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology, Iowa State University, 253 Bessey Hall, Ames, IA 50011, USA
3Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
4Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 1201 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101-2795, USA

Received 29 July 2010; Accepted 27 September 2010

Academic Editor: Hans H. Cheng

Copyright © 2011 Daniel E. Janes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. E. Janes, C. L. Organ, M. K. Fujita, et al., “Genome evolution in Reptilia, the sister group of mammals,” Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, vol. 239, pp. 239–264, 2010.
  2. A. M. Shedlock, D. E. Janes, and S. V. Edwards, “Amniote phylogenomics: testing evolutionary hypotheses with BAC library scanning and targeted clone analysis of large-scale DNA sequences from reptiles,” in Phylogenomics, W. Murphy, Ed., Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, USA, 2008.
  3. M. T. Ross, S. LaBrie, J. McPherson, et al., “Screening large-insert libraries by hybridization,” in Current Protocols in Human Genetics, A. Boyl, Ed., pp. 5.6.1–5.6.52, New York, NY, USA, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
  4. Y.-S. Yim, P. Moak, H. Sanchez-Villeda et al., “A BAC pooling strategy combined with PCR-based screenings in a large, highly repetitive genome enables integration of the maize genetic and physical maps,” BMC Genomics, vol. 8, article 47, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. Ezaz, B. Moritz, P. Waters, J. A. Marshall Graves, A. Georges, and S. D. Sarre, “The ZW sex microchromosomes of an Australian dragon lizard share no homology with those of other reptiles or birds,” Chromosome Research, vol. 17, pp. 965–973, 2009.
  6. R. Stiglec, T. Ezaz, and J. A. M. Graves, “A new look at the evolution of avian sex chromosomes,” Cytogenetic and Genome Research, vol. 117, no. 1–4, pp. 103–109, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. Ezaz, R. Stiglec, F. Veyrunes, and J. A. Marshall Graves, “Relationships between Vertebrate ZW and XY Sex Chromosome Systems,” Current Biology, vol. 16, no. 17, pp. R736–R743, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. E. Mank, “The W, X, Y and Z of sex-chromosome dosage compensation,” Trends in Genetics, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 226–233, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. E. Mank, “Sex chromosomes and the evolution of sexual dimorphism: lessons from the genome,” American Naturalist, vol. 173, no. 2, pp. 141–150, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. E. McClung, “The accessory chromosome—sex determinant,” Biological Bulletin, vol. 3, pp. 43–84, 1902.
  11. J. J. Bull, Evolution of Sex Determining Mechanisms, Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif, USA, 1983.
  12. S. Ohno, Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Genes, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1967.
  13. J. B. S. Haldane, “Sex ratio and unisexual sterility in hybrid animals,” Journal of Genetics, vol. 12, pp. 101–109, 1922.
  14. H. J. Muller, “A gene for the fourth chromosome of Drosophila,” Journal of Experimental Zoology, vol. 17, no. 325, p. 336, 1914.
  15. T. Dobzhansky, “Studies on hybrid sterility. II. Localization of sterility factors in Drosophila pseudoobscura hybrids,” Genetics, vol. 21, pp. 113–135, 1936.
  16. T. C. Hsu and K. Benirschke, An Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1977.
  17. K. Benirschke, T. C. Hsu, and F. L. Roberts, Chromosome Atlas: Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Birds, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1971.
  18. A. H. Sinclair, P. Berta, M. S. Palmer et al., “A gene from the human sex-determining region encodes a protein with homology to a conserved DNA-binding motif,” Nature, vol. 346, no. 6281, pp. 240–244, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. Valenzuela, “Co-evolution of genomic structure and selective forces underlying sexual development and reproduction,” Cytogenetic and Genome Research, vol. 127, no. 2–4, pp. 232–241, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. B. Charlesworth, “The evolution of sex chromosomes,” Science, vol. 251, no. 4997, pp. 1030–1033, 1991. View at Scopus
  21. W. S. Modi and D. Crews, “Sex chromosomes and sex determination in reptiles: commentary,” Current Opinion in Genetics and Development, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 660–665, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. D. Waters, M. C. Wallis, and J. A. M. Graves, “Mammalian sex-Origin and evolution of the Y chromosome and SRY,” Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 389–400, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. J. Vallender and B. T. Lahn, “How mammalian sex chromosomes acquired their peculiar gene content,” BioEssays, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 159–169, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. W. Sites, J. W. Bickham, and M. W. Haiduk, “Banded karyotypes of 6 taxa of kinosternid turtles,” Copeia, no. 4, pp. 692–698, 1979.
  25. R. Gorelick, “Theory for why dioecious plants have equal length sex chromosomes,” American Journal of Botany, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 979–984, 2005. View at Scopus
  26. Z. Liu, P. H. Moore, H. Ma et al., “A primitive Y chromosome in papaya marks incipient sex chromosome evolution,” Nature, vol. 427, no. 6972, pp. 348–352, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J.-N. Volff and M. Schartl, “Variability of genetic sex determination in poeciliid fishes,” Genetica, vol. 111, no. 1–3, pp. 101–110, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. J. Solari, Sex Chromosomes and Sex Determination in Vertebrates, CRC Press, Baco Raton, Fla, USA, 1994.
  29. J. E. Mank and H. Ellegren, “Parallel divergence and degradation of the avian W sex chromosome,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 389–391, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. I. Pigozzi and A. J. Solari, “The ZW pairs of two paleognath birds from two orders show transitional stages of sex chromosome differentiation,” Chromosome Research, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 541–551, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Nakamura, “Sex determination in amphibians,” Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 271–282, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Kallioniemi, O.-P. Kallioniemi, D. Sudar et al., “Comparative genomic hybridization for molecular cytogenetic analysis of solid tumors,” Science, vol. 258, no. 5083, pp. 818–821, 1992. View at Scopus
  33. T. Ezaz, A. E. Quinn, I. Miura, S. D. Sarre, A. Georges, and J. A. Marshall Graves, “The dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps has ZZ/ZW micro-sex chromosomes,” Chromosome Research, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 763–776, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Kawai, C. Nishida-Umehara, J. Ishijima, Y. Tsuda, H. Ota, and Y. Matsuda, “Different origins of bird and reptile sex chromosomes inferred from comparative mapping of chicken Z-linked genes,” Cytogenetic and Genome Research, vol. 117, no. 1–4, pp. 92–102, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. Ezaz, N. Valenzuela, F. Grützner et al., “An XX/XY sex microchromosome system in a freshwater turtle, Chelodina longicollis (Testudines: Chelidae) with genetic sex determination,” Chromosome Research, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 139–150, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. A. Martinez, T. Ezaz, N. Valenzuela, A. Georges, and J. A. Marshall Graves, “An XX/XY heteromorphic sex chromosome system in the Australian chelid turtle Emydura macquarii: a new piece in the puzzle of sex chromosome evolution in turtles,” Chromosome Research, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 815–825, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. Liehr, A. Weise, A. Heller et al., “Multicolor chromosome banding (MCB) with YAC/BAC-based probes and region-specific microdissection DNA libraries,” Cytogenetic and Genome Research, vol. 97, no. 1-2, pp. 43–50, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. R. Langer, A. A. Waldrop, and D. C. Ward, “Enzymatic synthesis of biotin-labeled polynucleotides—novel nucleic acid affinity probes,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 6633–6637, 1981. View at Scopus
  39. A. Weise, H. Starke, K. Mrasek, U. Claussen, and T. Liehr, “New insights into the evolution of chromosome 1,” Cytogenetic and Genome Research, vol. 108, no. 1-3, pp. 217–222, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. Gisselsson, E. Pålsson, M. Höglund et al., “Differentially amplified chromosome 12 sequences in low- and high-grade osteosarcoma,” Genes Chromosomes and Cancer, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 133–140, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. J. Das, B. P. Chowdhary, and T. Raudsepp, “Characterization of the bovine pseudoautosomal region and comparison with sheep, goat, and other mammalian pseudoautosomal regions,” Cytogenetic and Genome Research, vol. 126, no. 1-2, pp. 139–147, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. T. Ezaz, A. E. Quinn, S. D. Sarre, D. O'Meally, A. Georges, and J. A. Marshall Graves, “Molecular marker suggests rapid changes of sex-determining mechanisms in Australian dragon lizards,” Chromosome Research, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 91–98, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Y. Itoh, K. Kampf, and A. P. Arnold, “Comparison of the chicken and zebra finch Z chromosomes shows evolutionary rearrangements,” Chromosome Research, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 805–815, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. I. A. Ferreira and C. Martins, “Physical chromosome mapping of repetitive DNA sequences in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus: evidences for a differential distribution of repetitive elements in the sex chromosomes,” Micron, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 411–418, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. B. Phillips, J. J. Dekoning, A. B. Ventura et al., “Recombination is suppressed over a large region of the rainbow trout y chromosome,” Animal Genetics, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 925–932, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Shetty, P. Kirby, D. Zarkower, and J. A. M. Graves, “DMRT1 in a ratite bird: evidence for a role in sex determination and discovery of a putative regulatory element,” Cytogenetic and Genome Research, vol. 99, no. 1–4, pp. 245–251, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. E. Janes, T. Ezaz, J. A. M. Graves, and S. V. Edwards, “Recombination and nucleotide diversity in the sex chromosomal pseudoautosomal region of the emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae,” Journal of Heredity, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 125–136, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. C. A. Smith, K. N. Roeszler, T. Ohnesorg et al., “The avian Z-linked gene DMRT1 is required for male sex determination in the chicken,” Nature, vol. 461, no. 7261, pp. 267–271, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. Kawai, J. Ishijima, C. Nishida et al., “The ZW sex chromosomes of Gekko hokouensis (Gekkonidae, Squamata) represent highly conserved homology with those of avian species,” Chromosoma, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 43–51, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. T. Kawagoshi, Y. Uno, K. Matsubara, Y. Matsuda, and C. Nishida, “The ZW micro-sex chromosomes of the chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis, trionychidae, testudines) have the same origin as chicken chromosome 15,” Cytogenetic and Genome Research, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 125–131, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. K. Matsubara, H. Tarui, M. Toriba et al., “Evidence for different origin of sex chromosomes in snakes, birds, and mammals and step-wise differentiation of snake sex chromosomes,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 48, pp. 18190–18195, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. W. C. Warren, D. F. Clayton, H. Ellegren et al., “The genome of a songbird,” Nature, vol. 464, no. 7289, pp. 757–762, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. J. F. Hughes, H. Skaletsky, T. Pyntikova et al., “Chimpanzee and human y chromosomes are remarkably divergent in structure and gene content,” Nature, vol. 463, no. 7280, pp. 536–539, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. A.-S. van Laere, W. Coppieters, and M. Georges, “Characterization of the bovine pseudoautosomal boundary: documenting the evolutionary history of mammalian sex chromosomes,” Genome Research, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1884–1895, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. J. P. Wilkerson, T. Raudsepp, T. Graves et al., “Gene discovery and comparative analysis of X-degenerate genes from the domestic cat Y chromosome,” Genomics, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 329–338, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. L. Huang, J. Chi, J. Wang, W. Nie, W. Su, and F. Yang, “High-density comparative BAC mapping in the black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons): molecular cytogenetic dissection of the origin of MCR 1p+4 in the X1X2Y1Y2Y3 sex chromosome system,” Genomics, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 608–615, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. Q. Zhou, J. Wang, L. Huang et al., “Neo-sex chromosomes in the black muntjac recapitulate incipient evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes,” Genome Biology, vol. 9, no. 6, article R98, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. C. L. R. Delgado, P. D. Waters, C. Gilbert, T. J. Robinson, and J. A. M. Graves, “Physical mapping of the elephant X chromosome: conservation of gene order over 105million years,” Chromosome Research, vol. 17, pp. 917–926, 2009.
  59. T. Raudsepp and B. P. Chowdhary, “The horse pseudoautosomal region (PAR): characterization and comparison with the human, chimp and mouse PARs,” Cytogenetic and Genome Research, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 102–109, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. E. Deakin, E. Koina, P. D. Waters et al., “Physical map of two tammar wallaby chromosomes: a strategy for mapping in non-model mammals,” Chromosome Research, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1159–1175, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. L. S. Davidow, M. Breen, S. E. Duke, P. B. Samollow, J. R. McCarrey, and J. T. Lee, “The search for a marsupial XIC reveals a break with vertebrate synteny,” Chromosome Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 137–146, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. N. Sankovic, M. L. Delbridge, F. Grützner, M. A. Ferguson-Smith, P. C. M. O'Brien, and J. A. Marshall Graves, “Construction of a highly enriched marsupial Y chromosome-specific BAC sub-library using isolated Y chromosomes,” Chromosome Research, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 657–664, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. C. A. Edwards, W. Rens, O. Clarke et al., “The evolution of imprinting: chromosomal mapping of orthologues of mammalian imprinted domains in monotreme and marsupial mammals,” BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol. 7, article 157, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. W. Rens, P. C. M. O'Brien, F. Grützner et al., “The multiple sex chromosomes of platypus and echidna are not completely identical and several share homology with the avian Z,” Genome Biology, vol. 8, no. 11, article R243, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. C. Dohm, E. Tsend-Ayush, R. Reinhardt, F. Grützner, and H. Himmelbauer, “Disruption and pseudoautosomal localization of the major histocompatibility complex in monotremes,” Genome Biology, vol. 8, no. 8, article no. R175, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. F. Grützner, W. Rens, E. Tsend-Ayush et al., “In the platypus a meiotic chain of ten sex chromosomes shares genes with the bird Z and mammal X chromosomes,” Nature, vol. 432, no. 7019, pp. 913–917, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. D. McMillan, P. Miethke, A. E. Alsop et al., “Characterizing the chromosomes of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus),” Chromosome Research, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 961–974, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. F. Veyrunes, P. D. Waters, P. Miethke et al., “Bird-like sex chromosomes of platypus imply recent origin of mammal sex chromosomes,” Genome Research, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 965–973, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. D. W. Bellott, H. Skaletsky, T. Pyntikova et al., “Convergent evolution of chicken Z and human X chromosomes by expansion and gene acquisition,” Nature, vol. 466, no. 7306, pp. 612–616, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. K. Nam and H. Ellegren, “The chicken (Gallus gallus) Z chromosome contains at least three nonlinear evolutionary strata,” Genetics, vol. 180, no. 2, pp. 1131–1136, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. C. Chapus and S. V. Edwards, “Genome evolution in Reptilia: in silico chicken mapping of 12,000 BAC-end sequences from two reptiles and a basal bird,” BMC Genomics, vol. 10, no. 2, article S8, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. D. E. Janes, C. L. Organ, and S. V. Edwards, “Variability in sex-determining mechanisms influences genome complexity in reptilia,” Cytogenetic and Genome Research, vol. 127, no. 2–4, pp. 242–248, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. N. P. Bohne, C. Schultheis, Q. Zhou, et al., “Identification of new gene candidates on the sex chromosomes of the platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus,” Cybium, vol. 32, pp. 69–71, 2008.
  74. R. Zimmer, W. A. King, and A. M. V. Gibbins, “Generation of chicken Z-chromosome painting probes by microdissection for screening large-insert genomic libraries,” Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 124–130, 1997. View at Scopus