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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 146493, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/146493
Review Article

Beyond Histone and Deacetylase: An Overview of Cytoplasmic Histone Deacetylases and Their Nonhistone Substrates

1Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
2Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan

Received 20 July 2010; Revised 22 October 2010; Accepted 16 November 2010

Academic Editor: Patrick Matthias

Copyright © 2011 Ya-Li Yao and Wen-Ming Yang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Acetylation of lysines is a prominent form of modification in mammalian proteins. Deacetylation of proteins is catalyzed by histone deacetylases, traditionally named after their role in histone deacetylation, transcriptional modulation, and epigenetic regulation. Despite the link between histone deacetylases and chromatin structure, some of the histone deacetylases reside in various compartments in the cytoplasm. Here, we review how these cytoplasmic histone deacetylases are regulated, the identification of nonhistone substrates, and the functional implications of their nondeacetylase enzymatic activities.