Drug Pharmacokinetic parameter Comments Acebutolol [ 76] Area under the concentration-time curve The concentration-time profile is larger in women, suggesting greater therapeutic and potential side effects Aspirin [ 36] Clearance, half-life Aspirin is cleared more rapidly from women Benzylamine Following transdermal absorption, women excrete 3 times more than men Beta-Blockers; Atenolol [ 77] Oral clearance lower in women, lower volume of distribution in women resulting in higher systemic exposure The greater reduction in blood pressure in women was due to pharmacokinetic and not pharmacodynamic differences Cefotaxime [ 79] Clearance Clearance is decreased in women Ciprofloxacin [ 80] Clearance Clearance is lower in women Cephradine [ 81] Slower rate of absorption and lower bioavailability in the female; increased clearance and decreased terminal elimination half-life in pregnancy Clozapine [ 82] significantly higher plasma levels for women Diazepam [ 83] Plasma binding Larger volume of distribution in women Ethanol [ 86] Volume of distribution, clearance, and first-pass metabolism When ethanol is ingested, men metabolize more in first pass metabolism; in addition the volume of distribution is smaller in women Ferrous Sulfate Absorption Absorption higher in prepubertal girls than boys Fluoroquinolones [ 87] Volume of distribution Lower in women Gemcitabine [ 79] Clearance Clearance is lower in women Heparin [ 79] Clearance Clearance is lower in women Iron [ 79] Absorption measured as % of the dose incorporated into red blood cells More ingested iron is absorbed by women than men Methylprednisolone [ 90] Plasma binding, clearance, volume of distribution, and half-life Plasma binding and
are similar in men and women; CL is increased in women and as a consequence, half-life is shorter
Metronidazole Volume of distribution Smaller volume of distribution and increased clearance resulting in lower AUC in women Metoprolol [ 100] Plasma binding, clearance, volume of distribution, half-life Clearance increases during pregnancy, but is smaller in women;
smaller in women than men, but increases during pregnancy;
plasma binding is unaffected by sex or pregnancy Midazolam [ 101] Considered to be probe for CYP3A4, not substrate for PGP No sex difference in clearance following either oral or intramuscular administration; interpretation complicated by differences in intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4 levels Mizolastin [ 102] Oral availability Longer duration for absorption in men, contributing to variability in drug concentrations in men and women Naratriptan [ 79] Oral availability, peak concentration Oral bioavailability being greater in women results in peak concentration is higher in women than men Ofloxacin Clearance Clearance is lower in women Olanzapine [ 103] Higher activity in women for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 Significantly higher plasma levels for women Ondansetron [ 79] Oral availability, clearance Oral availability is increased in women Phenytoin [ 104] Plasma binding Plasma binding decreases during pregnancy; however, the intrinsic clearance is unchanged so the free concentration is unchanged Prednisolone [ 105] Distribution Oral clearance and volume of distribution significantly higher in men Propranolol [ 106] Plasma binding, clearance, volume of distribution, and half-life Plasma binding is similar among men and women; however, plasma binding increases during pregnancy. Clearance is smaller in women.
is similar in both men and women and does not appear to be altered during pregnancy. Half-life is decreased in women compared to men but does not appear to be altered during pregnancy
Quinine [ 79] Plasma binding, clearance, volume of distribution, and half-life Plasma binding is unaltered during pregnancy, as is clearance.
decreases during pregnancy, as does half-life
Rifampicin [ 9] Women absorb the drug more efficiently — Rizatriptan [ 79] Urinary excretion, clearance, volume of distribution, half-life Urinary excretion is similar in men and women; clearance is greater in men Rocuronium Distribution Prolonged drug duration due to higher fat content and lower organ blood flow in women Salicylate [ 108] Absorption Increased rates of absorption in women Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors [ 91] Plasma concentrations are higher in women Decreased metabolism by hepatic CYP Vecuronium Distribution Prolonged drug duration due to higher fat content and lower organ blood flow in women Verapamil; Calcium channel blocker [ 94, 95] Clearance following intravenous administration more rapid in women, but oral clearance higher in men than women. Substrate for both CYP3A4 and PGP Sex differences in hepatic and gut CYP3A4 and PGP lead to complex differences in clearance between men and women. Bioavailability from the gut is greater in women. The greater bioavailability leads to increased systemic exposure in women Oral clearance is lower in women