Table 1: Suppressive effects of schistosome on experimental allergy and autoimmunity in rodents.

Category of animal modelsDiseasesSchistosomeTreatmentProposed mechanismsRefs

AllergyAsthma/Airway hypersensitivity or inflammationSmInfection (male)IL-5 , IL-10↑[20]
Infection, Egg i.p.IL-4 , IL-5 , IgE , Treg↑, Independent of IL-10[18]
Infection (chronic)B cells and CD4+ T cells, Dependent on IL-10[17]
Infection and Adoptive transferIL-10-producing CD1dhigh B cells → Treg↑[15]
Sm22.6, PIIIIL-4 , IL-5 ,   IgE , Treg ↑, independent of IL-10[19]
SjInfection (male, mixed)IL-4 , IL-5 , IgE , IL-10 ↑[21]
Infection and adoptive transferDC → IL-4 , IL-5 , IL-10 ↑[22]
SjSEA, Eggs (i.p., p.o.)Treg↑[23]
Systemic anaphylaxisSmInfectionIL-10-producing B cell[16]

AutoimmunityCollagen-induced arthritis (CIA)SmInfectionIL-17 , TNF-α↓, IL-6 , RANKL , anticollagen IgG [24]
SjInfectionIL-4 ↑, anticollagen IgG [25]
Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA)SjSj16 i.p.TNF-α↓, IL-1β↓, NO , IL-10 ↑[26]
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)SmInfectionIL-12p40 ,  IFN-γ↓, TNF-α↓, IL-4 ↑[27]
Egg i.p.IFN-γ↓, IL-4 ↑, TGF-β ↑, IL-10 ↑, dependent on STAT6[28]
SjSEA i.p.IFN-γ↓, IL-4 ↑[29]
Type 1 diabetes in NOD miceSmInfection, Egg i.p.Inhibition of Ab class switch (anti-insulin IgG )[30]
SEA, SWA i.p.NKT ↑[31]
SEA i.p.Treg ↑[32]
Streptozotocin-induced diabetes (multiple low dose)SmInfection[33]
TNBS-induced colitisSmInfectionIL-2 ↑, IL-4 ↑[34]
Egg i.p.IFN-γ↓, IL-4 ↑, dependent on STAT6[35]
SWA i.p.IFN-γ↓, IL-17 , TGF-β ↑, IL-10 ↑[36]
SjEgg i.p.IFN-γ↓, IL-4 ↑, IL-10 ↑, Treg ↑[37]
Egg i.p.IFN-γ↓, IL-4 ↑, TLR4 [38]
DSS-induced colitisSmInfection (male)Dependent on macrophages, independent of Treg, IL-10, IL-4, IL-13 and TGF-β[39]
InfectionTNF-α↓[40]
Grave's hyperthyroidismSmInfectionAnti-TSHR IgG2a [41]

: down-regulation, ↑: up-regulation, Sm: S. mansoni, Sj: S. japonicum.