Table 1: Studies in patients with SLE showing statistical significant associations ( ) between peripheral type I IFN activity and clinical and serological features.

AuthorNo. of patientsType I IFN levelsType I IFN-inducible genesClinical associationsSerological associations

Hooks et al. [2]28HighNMDisease activityAnti-dsDNA
Low C3

Kanayama et al. [8]25HighNMFeverNM

Bengtsson et al. [9]30HighNMDisease activity
Fever
Skin
Anti-dsDNA
Low C1q
Low C3
Leucopenia

Baechler et al. [10]48NMHighRenal and/or NPSLE HematologicNM

Dall’era et al. [11]65HighNMDisease activity
Skin
Anti-dsDNA
Low C3

Kirou et al. [12]77NMHighRenalAnti-dsDNA
Anti-Ro
Anti-U1 RNP
Anti-Sm
Low C3
Low C4

Feng et al. [13]48NMHighRenal
NPSLE (weak association)
Anti-dsDNA
Anti-Sm
Anti-Ro/La
Low C3

Weckerle et al. [14]1089HighNMNSAnti-dsDNA
Anti-Ro

NM: not measured, NS: not statistically significant. All abbreviations are explained in the text.