Table 2: Genetic studies investigating the association between several SNPs and both lupus nephritis and specific auto-antibodies in different ethnic populations.

AuthorNo. of SLE patientsNo. of healthy controlsEthnic originGene/SNP studiedAssociations
NephritisAutoantibodies

Taylor et al. [38]13962560North Americans (European descent)STAT4/
rs7574865
Anti-dsDNA/

Kawasaki et al. [39]308306JapaneseSTAT4/
rs7574865
Anti-dsDNA/

Qin et al. [40]190182ChineseIRF5/
rs2004640T
NS

Vuong et al. [41]272307Swedish-STAT4/
rs10181656
−NS−NM
-IRF5/
rs729302
rs4728142
rs2004640
rs3807306
rs10954213
rs11770589
rs2280714
−NS−NM
- TRAF1-C5/
rs3761847
−NS−NM
-TGFB1 /
rs6957
rs2241715
rs1982073
rs1800469
−NS−NM

Li et al. [32]748750Chinese (Northern Han)-STAT4 /
rs7574865
−NS−NS
- IRF7/
KIAA1542
-Anti-SSB/
rs2246614†−NS−NS

Luan et al. [42]675678ChineseSTAT4/
rs7582694
−NS−NS

Sigurdsson et al. [24]695SwedishSTAT4/
rs7582694
0.04Anti-dsDNA/

*Severe nephritis (ESRD or severe progressing renal disease in renal biopsy), .**Statistical significance found only in the case-control arm of the study, whereas, in the case-only arm of the study, results both for nephritis and anti-dsDNA reached no statistical significance.
***While a statistically significant association with lupus nephritis was detected, no association was found with any specific clinical finding or histological type of nephritis.
These 2 SNPs of the IRF7/KIAA1542 gene were not associated with SLE but only with specific SLE subphenotypes such as nephritis and anti-SSB.
NS: not statistically significant association. NM: not measured.
The rest of the abbreviations used are explained in the text.