Table 1: Summary of CAC in genetically engineered animal models of colitis.

ModelCharacteristicsTumor histologyTumor locationIncidence of cancerReferences

IL-2 x β 2-M DKOUC-likeCarcinomaRectum, colon32% adenocarcinomaSohn et al., 2001 [41]
IL-10 KOCD-like duodenitis, colitisCarcinomaColon, rectum60% adenocarcinomaShattuck-Brandt et al., 2000 [42]
RAG2 KOInduced by infecting with H. hepaticus Dysplasia, tubular adenoma, carcinoma, adenocarcinomaCecum, colon100% adenocarcinomaErdman et al., 2003 [43]
RAG2/Tgfβ1 DKOColitisDysplasia, adenocarcinomaCecum, colon100% adenocarcinomaErdman et al., 2003 [43]
TCRβ/p53 DKOUC-likeDysplasia, adenocarcinomaIleocecum, cecum70% adenocarcinomaKado et al., 2001 [44]
Gpx1/Gpx2 DKOIleocolitisDysplasia, adenocarcinoma, signet ring cell carcinomaIleum, colon28% adenocarcinomaChu et al., 2004 [45]
Gαi2 KOUC-likeCarcinomaColon31% adenocarcinomaRudolph et al., 1995 [46]
Msh2 KOHNPCCAdenoma, adenocarcinomaJejunum38.9% adenocarcinomaReitmair et al., 1996 [47]
Msh3 x Msh6 DKOHNPCCAdenoma, adenocarcinoma, lymphomaGI tract81.3% adenocarcinomaEdelmann et al., 2000 [48]
Msh6 KOHNPCCAdenoma, adenocarcinoma, lymphomaGI tract38.5% adenocarcinomaEdelmann et al., 2000 [48]
Mlh1 KOHNPCCAdenomas, adenocarcinomasGI tract72.0% tumor incidence
9.36% adenocarcinoma
Edelmann et al., 1999 [49]
Mlh3 KOHNPCCAdenomas, adenocarcinomasGI tract52% tumor incidence
14% adenocarcinoma
Chen et al., 2005 [50]
Mlh3 x Pms2 DKOHNPCCAdenomas, adenocarcinomasGI tract42% tumor incidenceChen et al., 2005 [50]
Msh2G674A/G674AHNPCCAdenocarcinomasGI tract19% adenocarcinomaLin et al., 2004 [51]
MlhG67R/G67RHNPCCAdenocarcinoma, adenoma, squamous basal cell carcinomaGI tract61% adenocarcinomaAvdievich et al., 2008 [52]

Abbreviations: CD, Crohn’s disease; DKO, double knockout; GI, gastrointestinal; HNPCC, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer; KO, knockout; RAG, recombination-activating gene: UC, ulcerative colitis.