Table 3: Examples of CAC in genetically engineered mice with DSS treatment.

GeneTreatmentCyclesInvasive carcinoma (%)References

Apc min+/−
Apc min+/−
4% DSS
2% DSS
2
1
40
100
Makiyama et al., 2005 [110] Tanaka et al., 2006 [111]

iNOS−/−
iNOS+/+
1% DSS + high
Iron
1568
65
Van Assche et al., 2005 [87]

P53−/−
P53+/−
P53+/+
4% DSS3 + 120 days53.9
22.3
0
Rutgeerts et al., 2006 [83]

Msh2−/−
Msh2+/−
Msh2+/+
5% DSS3–816.7
8
13.3
Cooper et al., 2000 [100]

Brp39−/−
Brp39+/+
AOM + 3.5% DSS337.5
87.5
Segawa et al., 2010 [26]

Abbreviations: AOM, azoxymethane; APC adenomatous polyposis coli; DSS, dextran sulfate sodium; NOS, nitric oxide synthase; Brp39, breast regression protein 39.