Table 2: Summarizing the similarities and differences of ESC and iPSC for disease modeling.

hESCsiPSCsReference

Source ICM Adult somatic cell[4, 15]
Basic pluripotent characteristics
Alkaline phosphatase activityYesYes[4, 15]
Pluripotent genes expressionYesYes[4, 15]
Pluripotent cell surface markersYesYes[4, 15]
In vitro and in vivo multilinage differentiationYesYes[4, 15]
Transcriptomic expressionNormal pluripotent gene expressionPluripotent gene expression but not all genes similar to hESCs and depend on reprogramming technique[36, 100]
Proteomic expressionNormal proteomic expressionNot all proteomic expression identical to hESCs[101]
Disease modelingFrom PGD diagnosed embryo in IVF clinicFrom diagnosed adult patient somatic cell[88, 102]
Disease-related expression characteristicYesYes[88, 102]