Table 2: Frequencies of gene mutations found in biomarkers and different stages of colon carcinogenesis in the DMH/AOM rat model.

GeneACF/MDF (n)Histologic diagnosis (n)Tumours (n)Adenomas (n)Carcinomas (n)CarcinogenRef.

Apc0% ACF (66)14.3% (27)(17)(10)AOM[58]
22.2% dysplasia (18)DMH[59]
15.4% AC (13)
8.8% (57)DMH [60]
0% ACF (24)30.4% (23)33.3% (12),27.3% (11)DMH [48]
25% MDF (24)

β-catenin75% (8)AOM [63]
15.4% ACF (13)0% hyperplasia (10)68.8% (32)33% (6)77% (26)AOM [62]
66% dysplasia (3)
20% ACF (15)67% BCAC (15)AOM [35]
32.4% (68)AOM [68]
37% (119)DMH [60]
7% ACF (27)40% (15)DMH[46]
25% MDF (28)

K-ras66% (44)DMH[69]
32% ACF (19)AC?AOM [70]
7.4% ACF (27)22% (50)4.3% (23),37% (27)AOM[65]
60%DMHAOM[66]
53.8% ACF (13)70% hyperplasia (10)25% (28)0% (2) small8% (12) smallAOM[77]
0% dysplasia (3)43% (14) large
16.7% (30)9% (22)37.5% (8)AOM [67]
58% (43)60% (10)58% (33)DMH[78]
16.7% (84)AOM [68]
27% ACF (6/22)AOM [79]
100% ACF (14)5.5% (18)11% (9) small0% (9) smallDMH[47]
23% MDF (13)

P530% (20)AOM[73]
0% (10)MAM [72]
0% (31)DMH [59]

Number in parenthesis denotes the total number of colon lesions analyzed. MSI, microsatellite instability; ACF, aberrant crypt foci; MDF, mucin depleted foci; BCAC, β-catenin accumulated crypts; AC, adenocarcinoma in situ; —: not reported.