Table 4: Current procedures for inducing heart damage in animals.

SpeciesHeart failure models

MurineMyocardial damage
Chemical: isoproterenol administration [106].
Electrical: overlapping burns [107].
Surgical: coronary artery ligation [105].
Ischemia Reperfusion:
Transient occlusion of the left coronary artery [108].
Cryoinfarction: cryo-injuries to the epicardium [109].
Pressure overload: aortic constriction and banding. Aortic stenosis [110, 111].
Transgenic models of dilated cardiomyopathy: mutation of cardiac α-actin protein [112].

RabbitSpontaneous: WHHLMI rabbits [113].
Coronary artery occlusion: similar to the murine model, also applicable to the carotid artery. This is an excellent model for testing endovascular therapies [114].
Pressure overload: aortic banding [115], valvular stenosis [116].

DogMicroembolization [117].
Tachycardia: ventricular pacing [118].
Aortic stenosis [119].

PigSurgical model: balloon occlusion of coronary arteries [120].
Tachycardia: pacing-induced supraventricular tachycardia [121].