Table 4: Features of common knockout, immunization, infection, and transplantation chimera mouse models for SjS.

CharacteristicAutoantibodiesSjögren’s syndrome patientKnockout (KO) mouse modelImmunization mouse modelInfectionmouse modelTransplantation chimeras
Id3PI3KTGF-β1TSP-1ArCAIIRoCMVGVHR

Anti-Ro/SS-A, Anti-La/SS-BYesYesYesNoYesYesYes
Anti-DNA (ANAs)YesYesNoYes
Anti-α-fodrinYesYes
Anti-β-adrenergic receptorYes
Anti-type3 muscarinic Ach receptorYes

Leukocytic infiltrateYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
- Time of onset (weeks)881244816428
DacryoadenitisYesYesYesYesYes
SialadenitisYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
Loss of secretory functionYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
- Time of onset (weeks)8<8>124164
- Target organS, LS, LSLSS
Proinflammatory cytokine productYesYesYesYes

Var: variable, male, and female mice differ, –: Not determined, S: Salivary glands, L: Lacrimal glands.