Table 2: Pregnancy-induced pharmacokinetic changes for selected drugs.

DrugHalf-lifeClearanceProtein binding (%)BioavailabilityTime during pregnancy change notedReference

CefatrizineDecreased (1.5 h)Increases6043%19–24 weeks [7]
AmoxicillinDecreased (1.2 h)Increases95%Delivery second and third Trimester and postpartum [37, 38]
CefuroximeDecreased (44 min)Increases30–50%Delivery[39]
ZidovudineUnchanged (1.1 h)Increases<2563%Delivery [40]
LamivudineUnchanged (6 h)No change10–5055%38 to Delivery [41]
SaquinavirUnchanged (9–15 h)98%Delivery [40]
LopinavirUnchanged (5-6 h)Decreases99%37%30–36 weeks [42]
NelfinavirUnchanged (3–5 h)98%2nd and 3rd trimester[43]
RitonavirUnchanged (3–5 h)99%Delivery [40]
GlyburideUnchanged (4 h)Increases98%Decreases28–38 weeks [44]
DigoxinDecreased (38 h)Increases33%60%3rd trimester [45, 46]
MidazolamUnchanged (2.5 h)Increases30%24%28–32 weeks [46]
Lamotrigine15–24 hIncreases98%55%Throughout pregnancy[47]
CaffeineIncreased (10.5 h)Decreases36–40 weeks[48]