About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 785158, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/785158
Research Article

Mutation of Herpesvirus Saimiri ORF51 Glycoprotein Specifically Targets Infectivity to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines

1Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
2Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK

Received 18 June 2010; Revised 14 October 2010; Accepted 14 October 2010

Academic Editor: Michael J. Spinella

Copyright © 2011 Susan J. Turrell and Adrian Whitehouse. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. Roizman, L. E. Carmichael, and F. Deinhardt, “Herpesviridae. Definition, provisional nomenclature, and taxonomy,” Intervirology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 201–217, 1981.
  2. S. K. Geevarghese, D. A. Geller, H. A. De Haan et al., “Phase I/II study of oncolytic herpes simplex virus NV1020 in patients with extensively pretreated refractory colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver,” Human Gene Therapy, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1119–1128, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  3. J. M. Markert, M. D. Medlock, S. D. Rabkin et al., “Conditionally replicating herpes simplex virus mutant G207 for the treatment of malignant glioma: results of a phase I trial,” Gene Therapy, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 867–874, 2000. View at Scopus
  4. N. N. Senzer, H. L. Kaufman, T. Amatruda et al., “Phase II clinical trial of a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-encoding, second-generation oncolytic herpesvirus in patients with unresectable metastatic melanoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 34, pp. 5763–5771, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  5. S. Macnab, R. White, J. Hiscox, and A. Whitehouse, “Production of an infectious Herpesvirus saimiri-based episomally maintained amplicon system,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 134, no. 3-4, pp. 287–296, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. A. Whitehouse, “Herpesvirus saimiri: a potential gene delivery vector (review),” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 139–148, 2003. View at Scopus
  7. S. Macnab and A. Whitehouse, “Progress and prospects: human artificial chromosomes,” Gene Therapy, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1180–1188, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. J.-C. Albrecht, J. Nicholas, D. Biller et al., “Primary structure of the herpesvirus saimiri genome,” Journal of Virology, vol. 66, no. 8, pp. 5047–5058, 1992. View at Scopus
  9. L. A. Falk, L. G. Wolfe, and F. Deinhardt, “Isolation of Herpesvirus saimiri from blood of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus),” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 1499–1505, 1972. View at Scopus
  10. H. Fickenscher and B. Fleckenstein, “Herpesvirus saimiri,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 356, no. 1408, pp. 545–567, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. P. G. Smith, P. L. Coletta, A. F. Markham, and A. Whitehouse, “In vivo episomal maintenance of a herpesvirus saimiribased gene delivery vector,” Gene Therapy, vol. 8, no. 23, pp. 1762–1769, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. B. Simmer, M. Alt, I. Buckreus, S. Berthold, B. Fleckenstein, and E. R. Platzer Grassmann, “Persistence of selectable herpesvirus saimiri in various human haematopoietic and epithelial cell lines,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 72, no. 8, pp. 1953–1958, 1991. View at Scopus
  13. R. C. Desrosiers, J. Kamine, and A. Bakker, “Synthesis of bovine growth hormone in primates by using a herpesvirus vector,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 2796–2803, 1985. View at Scopus
  14. R. Grassmann and B. Fleckenstein, “Selectable recombinant herpesvirus saimiri is capable of persisting in a human T-cell line,” Journal of Virology, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 1818–1821, 1989. View at Scopus
  15. C. Wieser, D. Stumpf, C. Grillhösl et al., “Regulated and constitutive expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines by nontransforming herpesvirus saimiri vectors,” Gene Therapy, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 395–406, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. G. M. Doody, J. P. Leek, A. K. Bali, A. Ensser, A. F. Markham, and E. A. de Wynter, “Marker gene transfer into human haemopoietic cells using a herpesvirus Saimiri-based vector,” Gene Therapy, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 373–379, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. H. Shizuya, B. Birren, U.-J. Kim et al., “Cloning and stable maintenance of 300-kilobase-pair fragments of human DNA in Escherichia coli using an F-factor-based vector,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 89, no. 18, pp. 8794–8797, 1992. View at Scopus
  18. C. M. Collins, M. M. Medveczky, T. Lund, and P. G. Medveczky, “The terminal repeats and latency-associated nuclear antigen of herpesvirus saimiri are essential for episomal persistence of the viral genome,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 83, no. 9, pp. 2269–2278, 2002. View at Scopus
  19. M. A. Calderwood, K. T. Hall, D. A. Matthews, and A. Whitehouse, “The herpesvirus saimiri ORF73 gene product interacts with host-cell mitotic chromosomes and self-associates via its C terminus,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 147–153, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. T. Hall, M. S. Giles, D. J. Goodwin, M. A. Calderwood, A. F. Markham, and A. Whitehouse, “Characterization of the herpesvirus saimiri ORF73 gene product,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 81, no. 11, pp. 2653–2658, 2000. View at Scopus
  21. M. Calderwood, R. E. White, R. A. Griffiths, and A. Whitehouse, “Open reading frame 73 is required for herpesvirus saimiri A11-S4 episomal persistence,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 86, no. 10, pp. 2703–2708, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. R. Griffiths and A. Whitehouse, “Herpesvirus Saimiri episomal persistence is maintained via interaction between open reading frame 73 and the cellular chromosome-associated protein MeCP2,” Journal of Virology, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 4021–4032, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. R. Griffiths, S. M. Harrison, S. Macnab, and A. Whitehouse, “Mapping the minimal regions within the ORF73 protein required for herpesvirus saimiri episomal persistence,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 2843–2850, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. R. E. White, M. A. Calderwood, and A. Whitehouse, “Generation and precise modification of a herpesvirus saimiri bacterial artificial chromosome demonstrates that the terminal repeats are required for both virus production and episomal persistence,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 84, no. 12, pp. 3393–3403, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. J. Stevenson, D. Clarke, D. M. Meredith, S. E. Kinsey, A. Whitehouse, and C. Bonifer, “Herpesvirus saimiri-based gene delivery vectors maintain heterologous expression throughout mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation in vitro,” Gene Therapy, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 464–471, 2000. View at Scopus
  26. R. A. Griffiths, J. R. Boyne, and A. Whitehouse, “Herpesvirus saimiri-based gene delivery vectors,” Current Gene Therapy, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. J. Stevenson, M. Cooper, J. C. Griffiths et al., “Assessment of Herpesvirus saimiri as a potential human gene therapy vector,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 269–277, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. G. Smith, S. A. Burchill, D. Brooke, P. L. Coletta, and A. Whitehouse, “Efficient infection and persistence of a herpesvirus saimiri-based gene delivery vector into human tumor xenografts and multicellular spheroid cultures,” Cancer Gene Therapy, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 248–256, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. R. E. Means, “Characterization of the Herpesvirus saimiri Orf51 protein,” Virology, vol. 326, no. 1, pp. 67–78, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. A. Birkmann, K. Mahr, A. Ensser et al., “Cell surface heparan sulfate is a receptor for human herpesvirus and interacts with envelope glycoprotein K8.1,” Journal of Virology, vol. 75, no. 23, pp. 11583–11593, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. R. E. Luna, F. Zhou, A. Baghian et al., “Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus glycoprotein K8.1 is dispensable for virus entry,” Journal of Virology, vol. 78, no. 12, pp. 6389–6398, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. P. G. Smith, F. Oakley, M. Fernandez, D. A. Mann, N. R. Lemoine, and A. Whitehouse, “Herpesvirus saimiri-based vector biodistribution using noninvasive optical imaging,” Gene Therapy, vol. 12, no. 19, pp. 1465–1476, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. J. Bruix, L. Boix, M. Sala, and J. M. Llovet, “Focus on hepatocellular carcinoma,” Cancer Cell, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 215–219, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. Lévy, C. A. Renard, Y. Wei, and M. A. Buendia, “Genetic alterations and oncogenic pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 963, pp. 21–36, 2002. View at Scopus
  35. J. Bruix, A. J. Hessheimer, A. Forner, L. Boix, R. Vilana, and J. M. Llovet, “New aspects of diagnosis and therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma,” Oncogene, vol. 25, no. 27, pp. 3848–3856, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  36. M. Bläker, M. Schmitz, A. Gocht et al., “Differential expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes in hepatocellular carcinomas,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 112–118, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. H. Reynaert, K. Rombouts, A. Vandermonde et al., “Expression of somatostatin receptors in normal and cirrhotic human liver and in hepatocellular carcinoma,” Gut, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1180–1189, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  38. Y. Zou, X. Xiao, Y. Li, and T. Zhou, “Somatostatin analogues inhibit cancer cell proliferation in an SSTR2-dependent manner via both cytostatic and cytotoxic pathways,” Oncology Reports, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 379–386, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Lalioti and J. Heath, “A new method for generating point mutations in bacterial artificial chromosomes by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli,” Nucleic acids research, vol. 29, no. 3, p. E14, 2001. View at Scopus
  40. R. M. Wright, H. Gram, A. Vattay, S. Byrne, P. Lake, and D. Dottavio, “Binding epitope of somatostatin defined by phage-displayed peptide libraries,” Bio/Technology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 165–169, 1995. View at Scopus
  41. Y. C. Patel, “Somatostatin and its receptor family,” Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 157–198, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  42. W. J. Rossowski and D. H. Coy, “Specific inhibition of rat pancreatic insulin or glucagon release by receptor-selective somatostatin analogs,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 205, no. 1, pp. 341–346, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  43. M. Li, X. Wang, W. Li et al., “Somatostatin receptor-1 induces cell cycle arrest and inhibits tumor growth in pancreatic cancer,” Cancer Science, vol. 99, no. 11, pp. 2218–2223, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  44. C. R. O'Riordan, A. Lachapelle, C. Delgado et al., “PEGylation of adenovirus with retention of infectivity and protection from neutralizing antibody in vitro and in vivo,” Human Gene Therapy, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1349–1358, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  45. A. Danielsson, G. Elgue, B. M. Nilsson et al., “An ex vivo loop system models the toxicity and efficacy of PEGylated and unmodified adenovirus serotype 5 in whole human blood,” Gene Therapy, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 752–762, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  46. E. J. Roy, B. K. Cho, L. A. Rund, T. A. Patrick, and D. M. Kranz, “Targeting T cells against brain tumors with a bispecific ligand-antibody conjugate,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 761–766, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S.-K. Yoon, L. Mohr, C. R. O'Riordan, A. Lachapelle, D. Armentano, and J. R. Wands, “Targeting a recombinant adenovirus vector to HCC cells using a bifunctional Fab-antibody conjugate,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 272, no. 2, pp. 497–504, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  48. J. T. Douglas and D. T. Curiel, “Strategies to accomplish targeted gene delivery to muscle cells employing tropism-modified adenoviral vectors,” Neuromuscular Disorders, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 284–298, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. Conner, L. Braidwood, and S. M. Brown, “A strategy for systemic delivery of the oncolytic herpes virus HSV1716: redirected tropism by antibody-binding sites incorporated on the virion surface as a glycoprotein D fusion protein,” Gene Therapy, vol. 15, no. 24, pp. 1579–1592, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  50. P. L. Shaw, A. N. Kirschner, T. S. Jardetzky, and R. Longnecker, “Characteristics of Epstein-Barr virus envelope protein gp42,” Virus Genes, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 307–319, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  51. J. D. Fingeroth, J. J. Weis, and T. F. Tedder, “Epstein-Barr virus receptor of human B lymphocytes is the C3d receptor CR2,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 81, no. 14 I, pp. 4510–4514, 1984. View at Scopus