Table 1: Available animal models simulating relevant traumatic injuries.
(a)

Trauma hemorrhage
Pressure controlledVolume controlled

Mouse(i) Inhalation anesthesia [1720](i) Inhalation anesthesia [1720]
(ii) Catheterization with PE-10 tubing [1722](ii) Catheterization with PE-10 tubing [1722]
(iii) BP 35 ± 5 mmHg for 30–90 min [20, 21, 23](iii) 0.025–0.05 mL/g body weight (35%–60%) [2327]
(iv) Volume resuscitation [1722, 28](iv) Volume resuscitation [1722, 28]

Rat(i) Inhalation anesthesia [2933](i) Inhalation anesthesia [2933]
(ii) Catheterization with PE-50 tubing [29, 34, 35](ii) Catheterization with PE-50 tubing [29, 34, 35]
(iii) BP 35–40 mmHg for 90–120 min [29, 31, 3335](iii) 20 mL/kg body weight (45%) [30, 36, 37]
(iv) Volume resuscitation [3335](iv) Volume resuscitation [3335]

Pig(i) Complex anesthesia [4, 3845](i) Complex anesthesia [4, 3845]
(ii) Orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation [41, 42, 44, 46](ii) Orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation [41, 42, 44, 46]
(iii) Complex catheterization [3841, 4345](iii) Complex catheterization [3841, 4345]
(iv) BP 30–40 mmHg for 45–60 min [39, 40, 42, 47](iv) 25–35 mL/kg body weight (40%) [43, 45, 48]
(v) Volume resuscitation to BP 60–65 mmHg [4951](v) Volume resuscitation to BP 60–65 mmHg [4951]

(b)

Traumatic brain injury
LFPCCIWeight drop

Mouse(i) Anesthesia(i) Anesthesia(i) Anesthesia
(ii) 2.0 diameter craniotomy [52](ii) 3–5 mm craniotomy, dura intact [5356](ii) Impact on exposed skull or intact dura [57]
(iii) Installation of a fluid percussion device [52, 58](iii) Installation of a pneumatically driven impactor (3 mm impounder)(iii) 250 g metal rod dropped from 2-3 cm [5961]:
(iv) Impact on intact dura by a brief fluid bolus [60, 62, 63](iv) Velocity 5-6 m/sec; depth of 0.5–1 mm [5356] (a) risk of skull fractures >3 cm [60]
(v) Injury magnitude: 3.6 atm [52] (b) inadequate trauma <2 cm [60]

Rat(i) Anesthesia(i) Anesthesia(i) Anesthesia
(ii) Craniotomy (4 × 2 mm) [30, 64, 65](ii) Craniotomy (diameter 6–10 mm) [6668](ii) Fixation of a steel disc [6971]
(iii) Installation of a luer-lock connector to intact dura [30, 64, 65](iii) Installation of a pneumatic cylinder [6668](iii) 300–450 g weight drop from 1–1.8 m height (exposed skull) [6971]
(iv) Trauma induction with 2.4 bars [30, 64, 65](iv) Impact velocity 4–8 m/sec [6668](iv) 21 g from 35 cm height (exposed dura) [72]

Pig(i) Complex anesthesia(i) Complex anesthesia  Commonly not performed
(ii) Complex craniotomy [7375](ii) Complex craniotomy [7375]
(iii) Additional ICP monitoring [7375](iii) Additional ICP monitoring [7375]
(iv) Trauma induction with 3–8 bars [73, 75](iv) Injury induction on intact dura:
 (a) velocity of 3.5 m/sec [76, 77]
 (b) dwell time 400 ms [76, 77]

(c)

Long bone fracture models
Open femoral fractureClosed femoral fractureTibial fracture

Mouse(i) Anesthesia(i) Anesthesia(i) Anesthesia
(ii) Lateral exposure of femoral bone [78, 79](ii) Initial stabilization:(ii) Less frequently performed [80]
(iii) Fracture performance by osteotomy [78, 81] (a) intramedullary pin [80, 82](iii) Fracture placement distal to keep fibula intact [80, 83, 84]
(iv) Stabilization by extramedullary fixation:  (b) intramedullary screw [80, 82]
 (a) locking plate [80, 85]  (c) locking nail [86]
 (b) pin clip device [80, 81](iii) Closed fracture by 3-point bending system [26, 80, 82, 87, 88]
 (c) external fixator [80, 89, 90]

Rat(i) Anesthesia(i) Anesthesia(i) Anesthesia
(ii) Lateral exposure of femoral bone [91, 92](ii) Initial stabilization:(ii) Closed fracture model [93, 94]:
(iii) Medial exposure of femoral bone [91, 92] (a) intramedullary steel pin [9597]  (a) 3-point bending system
(iv) Fracture performance by osteotomy [98, 99] (b) intramedullary K-wire [9597]  (b) 300 g weight from 20 cm height
(v) Fracture stabilization:(iii) Closed fracture by blunt guillotine:(iii) Open fracture model [100, 101]:
 (a) intramedullary pin or K-wire [95, 96, 102104] (a) 500–650 g steel weight [87, 97, 102, 105]  (a) lateral exposure of tibia
 (b) combination of K-wire and 2 screws [99] (b) 14 cm drop height [87, 97, 102, 105]  (b) fracture performance by osteotomy
 (c) plate osteosynthesis [106, 107](iv) Fracture stabilization:
 (d) external fixator [91, 108, 109] (a) K-wire or modified needle [93, 101]
 (b) plate fixation [100, 110]
 (c) external fixator [111]

Pig(i) Complex anesthesiaNot performed in trauma modelsNot performed in trauma models
(ii) Fracture is performed by captive bolt gun or osteotomy [112115]
(iii) Fracture remains commonly unstabilized [112115]
(iv) Intramedullary nailing is possible [116]