Table 1: Differences between large animal models and humans in the thrombotic system and other parameters that may influence antithrombotic effectiveness.

SpecieDifferences with humansHuman similaritiesReference

Nonhuman primatesPlatelet function, coagulation, fibrinolysis and therapeutic interventions (arteriovenous vascular graft or surgical endarterectomy)Harker et al. [4]
Different digestive metabolic pathwaysJohnson et al. [5]

SwineVon Willebrand levels close to humansDenis and Wagner [6]
Physiological hematologic valuesGross [7]
Accelerated intrinsic cascade activity because of higher levels of coagulation factors (IX, XI, XII)Olsen et al. [8]
Iron deficiency that may affect erythrocytic volumesPedersen et al. [9]
GPIIb/IIIa proteinRoyo et al. [10]
Aortic EC do not contain mature vWFRoyo and Badimon [11]

DogsVascular and platelet responsiveness to thromboxane and endoperoxide analogues close to humansBurke et al. [12]
Platelets appear to play a greater role in thrombus formation than in humansStrony et al. [13]

EC: endothelial cells; VWF: Von Willebrand factor.