Table 1: Classification of the Spinal Cord Injury Pain Task Force of the International Association of the Study of Pain.

Broad typeBroad systemAffected structures/Pathologies

NociceptiveMusculoskeletalBone, joint, muscle trauma, or inflammation
Mechanical instability
Muscle spasm
Secondary overuse
VisceralRenal calculus (kidney stones)
Bowel and sphincter dysfunctions
Headache by autonomic dysreflexia

NeuropathicAbove-levelCompression mononeuropathy
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
At-levelNerve root compression (cauda equine)
Syringomyelia
Spinal cord trauma/ischemia
Dual-level cord and root trauma (double-lesion syndrome)
Below-levelSpinal cord trauma/ischemia