Table 4: Commercial usage of chia seed.

Chia seed usageProductsRemarks

Animal feedChicken(1) Increased ω-3 alpha-linoleic acid and ω-6 linoleic acid of egg and yolk [26].
(2) Increased ω-3 alpha-linoleic acid and decreased palmitic fatty acid of meat.
(3) Taste, sensory evaluation, and production of eggs and broilers were not affected [34, 4547].
Pigs and rabbitsIncrease of PUFA in meat fats as well as improved aroma, flavor, and digestibility of meat [2, 30, 4649].

Food formulationComposite flour (15–20% of chia with corn flour)Increased total dietary fiber and a decrease in Glycemic Index [41].
Ingredient for cookies, cereal bars, chips, desserts, breads, jellies, and emulsionsImproved water holding, absorption capacity, and emulsifying stability [1, 37, 50].

Health supplementChia seed oilTopical application for skin diseases such as pruritus and xerotic especially in diabetic and renal dysfunction patients [12].
Carbohydrate-loading drinksEnhanced athletes’ sports endurance by more than 90 minutes but not athletes’ performance [51].
Supplement for postmenopausal womenEnhanced the levels of ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) [18].