|Chia seed usage||Products||Remarks|
|Animal feed||Chicken||(1) Increased ω-3 alpha-linoleic acid and ω-6 linoleic acid of egg and yolk .|
(2) Increased ω-3 alpha-linoleic acid and decreased palmitic fatty acid of meat.
(3) Taste, sensory evaluation, and production of eggs and broilers were not affected [34, 45–47].
|Pigs and rabbits||Increase of PUFA in meat fats as well as improved aroma, flavor, and digestibility of meat [2, 30, 46–49].|
|Food formulation||Composite flour (15–20% of chia with corn flour)||Increased total dietary fiber and a decrease in Glycemic Index .|
|Ingredient for cookies, cereal bars, chips, desserts, breads, jellies, and emulsions||Improved water holding, absorption capacity, and emulsifying stability [1, 37, 50].|
|Health supplement||Chia seed oil||Topical application for skin diseases such as pruritus and xerotic especially in diabetic and renal dysfunction patients .|
|Carbohydrate-loading drinks||Enhanced athletes’ sports endurance by more than 90 minutes but not athletes’ performance .|
|Supplement for postmenopausal women||Enhanced the levels of ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) .|