- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 186710, 10 pages
The Serine Protease Plasmin Triggers Expression of the CC-Chemokine Ligand 20 in Dendritic Cells via Akt/NF-κB-Dependent Pathways
Institute of Pharmacology of Natural Products and Clinical Pharmacology, Universitat Ulm, Helmholtzstra
Received 16 March 2012; Accepted 1 June 2012
Academic Editor: Lindsey A. Miles
Copyright © 2012 Xuehua Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- T. Syrovets and T. Simmet, “Novel aspects and new roles for the serine protease plasmin,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 61, no. 7-8, pp. 873–885, 2004.
- J. L. Martin-Ventura, V. Nicolas, X. Houard et al., “Biological significance of decreased HSP27 in human atherosclerosis,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1337–1343, 2006.
- A. Leclercq, X. Houard, S. Loyau et al., “Topology of protease activities reflects atherothrombotic plaque complexity,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 191, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2007.
- J. Le Dall, B. Ho-Tin-Noé, L. Louedec et al., “Immaturity of microvessels in haemorrhagic plaques is associated with proteolytic degradation of angiogenic factors,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 184–193, 2010.
- X. Houard, F. Rouzet, Z. Touat et al., “Topology of the fibrinolytic system within the mural thrombus of human abdominal aortic aneurysms,” Journal of Pathology, vol. 212, no. 1, pp. 20–28, 2007.
- I. Weide, B. Tippler, T. Syrovets, and T. Simmet, “Plasmin is a specific stimulus of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of human peripheral monocytes,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 561–568, 1996.
- T. Syrovets, B. Tippler, M. Rieks, and T. Simmet, “Plasmin is a potent and specific chemoattractant for human peripheral monocytes acting via a cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent pathway,” Blood, vol. 89, no. 12, pp. 4574–4583, 1997.
- Q. Li, Y. Laumonnier, T. Syrovets, and T. Simmet, “Plasmin triggers cytokine induction in human monocyte-derived macrophages,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1383–1389, 2007.
- T. Syrovets, M. Jendrach, A. Rohwedder, A. Schüle, and T. Simmet, “Plasmin-induced expression of cytokines and tissue factor in human monocytes involves AP-1 and IKKβ-mediated NF-κB activation,” Blood, vol. 97, no. 12, pp. 3941–3950, 2001.
- R. M. Steinman and H. Hemmi, “Dendritic cells: translating innate to adaptive immunity,” Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 311, pp. 17–58, 2006.
- S. Sarkar and D. A. Fox, “Dendritic cells in rheumatoid arthritis,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 10, pp. 656–665, 2005.
- E. Galkina and K. Ley, “Immune and inflammatory mechanisms of atherosclerosis,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 27, pp. 165–197, 2009.
- O. Soehnlein, M. Drechsler, M. Hristov, and C. Weber, “Functional alterations of myeloid cell subsets in hyperlipidaemia: relevance for atherosclerosis,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 13, no. 11-12, pp. 4293–4303, 2009.
- C. Weber and H. Noels, “Atherosclerosis: current pathogenesis and therapeutic options,” Nature Medicine, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1410–1422, 2011.
- K. Shortman and S. H. Naik, “Steady-state and inflammatory dendritic-cell development,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 19–30, 2007.
- M. Merad and M. G. Manz, “Dendritic cell homeostasis,” Blood, vol. 113, no. 15, pp. 3418–3427, 2009.
- X. Li, T. Syrovets, F. Genze et al., “Plasmin triggers chemotaxis of monocyte-derived dendritic cells through an Akt2-dependent pathway and promotes a T-helper type-1 response,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 582–590, 2010.
- R. Bonecchi, E. Galliera, E. M. Borroni, M. M. Corsi, M. Locati, and A. Mantovani, “Chemokines and chemokine receptors: an overview,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 540–551, 2009.
- P. Miossec, “Dynamic interactions between T cells and dendritic cells and their derived cytokines/chemokines in the rheumatoid synovium,” Arthritis Research and Therapy, vol. 10, supplement 1, article S2, 2008.
- E. Schutyser, S. Struyf, and J. Van Damme, “The CC chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6,” Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 409–426, 2003.
- A. Kaser, O. Ludwiczek, S. Holzmann et al., “Increased expression of CCL20 in human inflammatory bowel disease,” Journal of Clinical Immunology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 74–85, 2004.
- I. K. Demedts, K. R. Bracke, G. Van Pottelberge et al., “Accumulation of dendritic cells and increased CCL20 levels in the airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 175, no. 10, pp. 998–1005, 2007.
- E. G. Harper, C. Guo, H. Rizzo et al., “Th17 cytokines stimulate CCL20 expression in keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo: implications for psoriasis pathogenesis,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 129, no. 9, pp. 2175–2183, 2009.
- K. Beider, M. Abraham, M. Begin et al., “Interaction between CXCR4 and CCL20 pathways regulates tumor growth,” PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 4, Article ID e5125, 2009.
- M. Le Borgne, N. Etchart, A. Goubier et al., “Dendritic cells rapidly recruited into epithelial tissues via CCR6/CCL20 are responsible for CD8+ T cell crosspriming in vivo,” Immunity, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 191–201, 2006.
- M. Vulcano, S. Struyf, P. Scapini et al., “Unique regulation of CCL18 production by maturing dendritic cells,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 170, no. 7, pp. 3843–3849, 2003.
- B. Marcet, M. Horckmans, F. Libert, S. Hassid, J. M. Boeynaems, and D. Communi, “Extracellular nucleotides regulate CCL20 release from human primary airway epithelial cells, monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 211, no. 3, pp. 716–727, 2007.
- D. N. J. Hart, “Dendritic cells: unique leukocyte populations which control the primary immune response,” Blood, vol. 90, no. 9, pp. 3245–3287, 1997.
- Y. V. Bobryshev and R. S. A. Lord, “55-kD actin-bundling protein (p55) is a specific marker for identifying vascular dendritic cells,” Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1481–1486, 1999.
- X. Li, T. Syrovets, S. Paskas, Y. Laumonnier, and T. Simmet, “Mature dendritic cells express functional thrombin receptors triggering chemotaxis and CCL18/pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine induction,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 181, no. 2, pp. 1215–1223, 2008.
- Y. Laumonnier, T. Syrovets, L. Burysek, and T. Simmet, “Identification of the annexin A2 heterotetramer as a receptor for the plasmin-induced signaling in human peripheral monocytes,” Blood, vol. 107, no. 8, pp. 3342–3349, 2006.
- B. Sperandio, B. Regnault, J. Guo et al., “Virulent Shigella flexneri subverts the host innate immune response through manipulation of antimicrobial peptide gene expression,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 205, no. 5, pp. 1121–1132, 2008.
- N. Katoh, S. Kraft, J. H. M. Weßendorf, and T. Bieber, “The high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) blocks apoptosis in normal human monocytes,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 183–190, 2000.
- T. Syrovets, A. Schüle, M. Jendrach, B. Büchele, and T. Simmet, “Ciglitazone inhibits plasmin-induced proinflammatory monocyte activation via modulation of p38 MAP kinase activity,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 274–281, 2002.
- T. Syrovets, J. E. Gschwend, B. Büchele et al., “Inhibition of IκB kinase activity by acetyl-boswellic acids promotes apoptosis in androgen-independent PC-3 prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, no. 7, pp. 6170–6180, 2005.
- I. Weide, J. Romisch, and T. Simmet, “Contact activation triggers stimulation of the monocyte 5-lipoxygenase pathway via plasmin,” Blood, vol. 83, no. 7, pp. 1941–1951, 1994.
- F. Battaglia, S. Delfino, E. Merello et al., “Hypoxia transcriptionally induces macrophage-inflammatory protein-3α/CCL-20 in primary human mononuclear phagocytes through nuclear factor (NF)-κB,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 648–662, 2008.
- O. N. Ozes, L. D. Mayo, J. A. Gustin, S. R. Pfeffer, L. M. Pfeffer, and D. B. Donner, “NF-κB activation by tumour necrosis factor requires tie Akt serine-threonine kinase,” Nature, vol. 401, no. 6748, pp. 82–85, 1999.
- N. D. Perkins, “Post-translational modifications regulating the activity and function of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway,” Oncogene, vol. 25, no. 51, pp. 6717–6730, 2006.
- F. Huang, C. Y. Kao, S. Wachi, P. Thai, J. Ryu, and R. Wu, “Requirement for both JAK-mediated PI3K signaling and ACT1/TRAF6/TAK1- dependent NF-κB activation by IL-17A in enhancing cytokine expression in human airway epithelial cells,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 179, no. 10, pp. 6504–6513, 2007.
- M. S. Hayden and S. Ghosh, “Shared principles in NF-κB signaling,” Cell, vol. 132, no. 3, pp. 344–362, 2008.
- M. S. Hayden, A. P. West, and S. Ghosh, “NF-κB and the immune response,” Oncogene, vol. 25, no. 51, pp. 6758–6780, 2006.
- L. Burysek, T. Syrovets, and T. Simmet, “The serine protease plasmin triggers expression of MCP-1 and CD40 in human primary monocytes via activation of p38 MAPK and Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT signaling pathways,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 36, pp. 33509–33517, 2002.
- S. Sugita, T. Kohno, K. Yamamoto et al., “Induction of macrophage-inflammatory protein-3α gene expression by TNF-dependent NF-κB activation,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 168, no. 11, pp. 5621–5628, 2002.
- C. W. Lindsley, Z. Zhao, W. H. Leister et al., “Allosteric Akt (PKB) inhibitors: discovery and SAR of isozyme selective inhibitors,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 761–764, 2005.
- S. P. Davies, H. Reddy, M. Caivano, and P. Cohen, “Specificity and mechanism of action of some commonly used protein kinase inhibitors,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 351, no. 1, pp. 95–105, 2000.
- C. Cuaz-Pérolin, L. Billiet, E. Baugé et al., “Antiinflammatory and antiatherogenic effects of the NF-κB inhibitor acetyl-11-Keto-β-boswellic acid in LPS-challenged ApoE-/- mice,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 272–277, 2008.
- T. Syrovets, B. Büchele, C. Krauss, Y. Laumonnier, and T. Simmet, “Acetyl-boswellic acids inhibit lipopolysaccharide-mediated TNF-α induction in monocytes by direct interaction with IκB kinases,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 174, no. 1, pp. 498–506, 2005.
- H. Wang, T. Syrovets, D. Kess et al., “Targeting NF-κB with a natural triterpenoid alleviates skin inflammation in a mouse model of psoriasis,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 183, no. 7, pp. 4755–4763, 2009.
- A. P. Kaplan, K. Joseph, Y. Shibayama, S. Reddigari, B. Ghebrehiwet, and M. Silverberg, “The intrinsic coagulation/kinin-forming cascade: assembly in plasma and cell surfaces in inflammation,” Advances in Immunology, vol. 66, pp. 225–272, 1997.
- A. H. Schmaier, “Contact activation: a revision,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 101–107, 1997.
- R. W. Colman and A. H. Schmaier, “Contact system: a vascular biology modulator with anticoagulant, profibrinolytic, antiadhesive, and proinflammatory attributes,” Blood, vol. 90, no. 10, pp. 3819–3843, 1997.
- A. H. Schmaier and K. R. McCrae, “The plasma kallikrein-kinin system: its evolution from contact activation,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 2323–2329, 2007.
- E. Ferrero, K. Vettoretto, A. Bondanza et al., “uPA/uPAR system is active in immature dendritic cells derived from CD14+CD34+ precursors and is down-regulated upon maturation,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 164, no. 2, pp. 712–718, 2000.
- C. Y. Kao, F. Huang, Y. Chen et al., “Up-regulation of CC chemokine ligand 20 expression in human airway epithelium by IL-17 through a JAK-independent but MEK/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 175, no. 10, pp. 6676–6685, 2005.
- P. Scapini, C. Laudanna, C. Pinardi, et al., “Neutrophils produce biologically active macrophage inflammatory protein-3a (MIP-3a)/CCL20 and MIP-3β/CCL19,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1981–1988, 2001.
- R. Caruso, D. Fina, I. Peluso et al., “A functional role for interleukin-21 in promoting the synthesis of the T-Cell chemoattractant, MIP-3α, by gut epithelial cells,” Gastroenterology, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 166–175, 2007.
- P. Dhawan and A. Richmond, “A novel NF-κB-inducing kinase-MAPK signaling pathway up-regulates NF-κB activity in melanoma cells,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 10, pp. 7920–7928, 2002.
- L. Vermeulen, G. De Wilde, S. Notebaert, W. Vanden Berghe, and G. Haegeman, “Regulation of the transcriptional activity of the nuclear factor-κB p65 subunit,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 64, no. 5-6, pp. 963–970, 2002.
- L. V. Madrid, M. W. Mayo, J. Y. Reuther, and A. S. Baldwin, “Akt stimulates the transactivation potential of the RelA/p65 subunit of NF-κB through utilization of the IκB kinase and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 276, no. 22, pp. 18934–18940, 2001.
- N. Sizemore, N. Lerner, N. Dombrowski, H. Sakurai, and G. R. Stark, “Distinct roles of the IκB kinase α and β subunits in liberating nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) from IκB and in phosphorylating the p65 subunit of NF-κB,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 6, pp. 3863–3869, 2002.
- S. J. Jeong, C. A. Pise-Masison, M. F. Radonovich, H. U. Park, and J. N. Brady, “Activated AKT regulates NF-κB activation, p53 inhibition and cell survival in HTLV-1-transformed cells,” Oncogene, vol. 24, no. 44, pp. 6719–6728, 2005.