About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 203093, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/203093
Review Article

What Risk Assessments of Genetically Modified Organisms Can Learn from Institutional Analyses of Public Health Risks

Department of Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95006, USA

Received 29 March 2012; Revised 22 May 2012; Accepted 12 July 2012

Academic Editor: Joel W. Ochieng

Copyright © 2012 S. Ravi Rajan and Deborah K. Letourneau. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. N. Edwards, “Global climate science, uncertainty and politics: data-laden models, model-filtered data,” Science As Culture, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 437–472, 1999.
  2. M. Allen, “Embracing an Uncertain Future,” Nature, vol. 466, no. 7302, p. 31, 2010.
  3. C. Perrow, Complex Organizations: A Critical Essay, Random House, 3rd edition, 1986.
  4. C. Perrow, Normal Accidents: Living With High-Risk Technologies, Princeton University Press, 1999.
  5. C. Perrow, The Next Catastrophe: Reducing Our Vulnerabilities to Natural, Industrial, and Terrorist Disasters, Princeton University Press, 2007.
  6. D. Vaughan, The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture, and Deviance at NASA, University of Chicago Press, 1996.
  7. J. Thornton, Pandora's Poison: Chlorine, Health and a New Environmental Strategy, MIT Press, Cumberland, RI, USA, 2000.
  8. Environmental Protection Agency, USA, Risk Management Research—Basic Information, http://www.epa.gov/nrmrl/basicinfo.html.
  9. National Research Council, USA, Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process, Committee on the Institutional Means for Assessment of Risks to Public Health, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1983.
  10. EPA, “Environmental protection agency guidelines for ecological risk assessment,” Federal Register, vol. 63, no. 93, pp. 26846–26924, 1998.
  11. W. Ruckelshaus, “Risk, Science, and Democracy,” in Readings in Risk, T. S. Glickman and M. Gough, Eds., John Hopkins University Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2000.
  12. M. Douglas and A. Wildavsky, Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technological and Environmental Dangers, University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif, USA, 1982.
  13. J. S. Kroll-Smith, P. Brown, and V. J. Gunter, Illness and the Environment: A Reader in Contested Medicine, NYU Press, 2000.
  14. M. J. Small, “Erratum to “Methods for assessing uncertainty in fundamental assumptions and associated models for cancer risk assessment,” by Mitchell J. Small, in Risk Analysis, 28(5), 2008,” Risk Analysis, vol. 28, no. 6, p. 1773, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. Brown, J. S. Kroll-Smith, and V. J. Gunter, “Knowledge, citizens, and organizations: an overview of environments, diseases, and social conflict,” in Illness and the Environment: A Reader in Contested Medicine, 1st edition, 2000.
  16. D. Kahneman, D. P. Slovic, and A. Tversky, Judgement Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1982.
  17. D. Kahneman and A. Tversky, Eds., Choices, Values and Frames, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000.
  18. P. Slovic, The Feeling of Risk: New Perspectives on Risk Perception, Routledge, London, UK, 2010.
  19. D. Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, NY, USA, 2011.
  20. M. Douglas, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo, Routledge, Oxford, UK, 1994.
  21. G. C. Bowker, Ed., Social Science, Technical Systems, and Cooperative Work: Beyond the Great Divide, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 1997.
  22. G. C. Bowker and S. L. Star, Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1999.
  23. P. N. Edwards, “Chapter 2 A brief history of atmospheric general circulation modeling,” International Geophysics, vol. 70, pp. 67–90, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Lahsen, “Seductive simulations? Uncertainty distribution around climate models,” Social Studies of Science, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 895–922, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Lahsen, Transnational Locals: Brazilian Experiences of the Climate Regime, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2004.
  26. M. Lahsen, “Technocracy, democracy, and U.S. climate politics: the need for demarcations,” Science Technology and Human Values, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 137–169, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Lahsen and C. A. Nobre, “Challenges of connecting international science and local level sustainability efforts: the case of the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia,” Environmental Science and Policy, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 62–74, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Lahsen, “The social status of climate change knowledge: an editorial essay,” WIREs Climate Change, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 162–171, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. Nobre, G. P. Brasseur, M. A. Shapiro et al., “Addressing the complexity of the Earth system,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 91, no. 10, pp. 1389–1396, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. Shrader-Frechette, “Comparativist rationality and epidemiological epistemology: theory choice in cases of nuclear-weapons risk,” Topoi, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 153–163, 2004.
  31. K. S. Shrader-Frechette, Risk Analysis and Scientific Method: Methodological and Ethical Issues With Evaluating Societal Risks, Kluwer Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1985.
  32. K. S. Shrader-Frechette, Risk and Rationality: Philosophical Foundations for Populist Reforms, University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif, USA, 1991.
  33. A. Hilbeck, M. Meier, J. Römbke, S. Jänsch, H. Teichmann, and B. Tappeser, “Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants—concepts and controversies,” Environmental Sciences Europe, vol. 23, no. 1, article 13, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. F. A. Bazzaz, N. R. Chiariello, P. D. Coley, and L. F. Pitelka, “Allocating resources to reproduction and defense,” Bioscience, vol. 37, pp. 58–67, 1987.
  35. D. A. Andow and C. Zwahlen, “Assessing environmental risks of transgenic plants,” Ecology Letters, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 196–214, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. J. Duan, M. Marvier, J. Huesing, G. Dively, and Z. Y. Huang, “A meta-analysis of effects of Bt crops on honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae),” PlosOne, vol. 3, no. 1, article e1415, 2008.
  37. J. Bergelson and C. B. Purrington, “Factors affecting the spread of resistant Arabidopsis thaliana populations,” in Genetically Engineered Organisms: Assessing Environmental and Human Health Effecty, 2002.
  38. C. N. Stewart, J. N. All, P. L. Raymer, and S. Ramachandran, “Increased fitness of transgenic insecticidal rapeseed under insect selection pressure,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 773–779, 1997. View at Scopus
  39. D. K. Letourneau and J. A. Hagen, “Plant fitness assessment for wild relatives of insect resistant crops,” Environmental Biosafety Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 45–55, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. NRC, Environmental Effects of Transgenic Plants: the Scope and Adequacy of Regulation, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2002.
  41. K. Barrett and E. Abergel, “Breeding familiarity: environmental risk assessment for genetically engineered crops in Canada,” Science and Public Policy, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 2–12, 2000. View at Scopus
  42. M. Schauzu, “The concept of substantial equivalence in safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified organisms,” AgBiotechNet, vol. 2, no. ABN 044, pp. 1–4, 2000.
  43. H. van der Voet, J. N. Perry, B. Amzal, and C. Paoletti, “A statistical assessment of differences and equivalences between genetically modified and reference plant varieties,” BMC Biotechnology, vol. 11, article 15, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. A. Andow, “Resisting resistance to Bt corn,” in Genetically Engineered Organisms: Assessing Environmental and Human Health Effects, D. K. Letourneau and B. E. Burrows, Eds., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2002.
  45. NRC (National Research Council), Issues in Risk Assessment. Committee on Risk Assessment Methodology, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1993.
  46. K. E. Weick, “Organizational culture as a source of high-reliability,” California Management Review, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 112–127, 1987.
  47. K. E. Weick, “Theory construction as disciplined imagination,” Academy of Management Review, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 516–531, 1989.
  48. K. E. Weick, “The vulnerable system—an analysis of the tenerife air disaster,” Journal of Management, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 571–593, 1990.
  49. K. E. Weick, “The collapse of sensemaking in organizations—the mann gulch disaster,” Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 628–652, 1993.
  50. G. I. Rochlin, “Safe operation as a social construct,” Ergonomics, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 1549–1560, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. P. R. Schulman, “The negotiated order of organizational reliability,” Administration & Society, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 353–372, 1993.
  52. P. R. Schulman, “General attributes of safe organisations,” Quality and Safety in Health Care, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. ii39–ii44, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. Hilbeck, “Transgenic host plant resistance and non-target effects,” in Genetically Engineered Organisms: Assessing Environmental and Human Health Effects, D. K. Letourneau and B. E. Burrows, Eds., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2002.
  54. A. Lang and M. Otto, “A synthesis of laboratory and field studies on the effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize on non-target Lepidoptera,” Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 121–134, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. T. Demeke, D. J. Perry, and W. R. Scowcroft, “Adventitious presence of GMOs: scientific overview for Canadian grains,” Canadian Journal of Plant Science, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 2006. View at Scopus
  56. M. L. Zapiola, C. K. Campbell, M. D. Butler, and C. A. Mallory-Smith, “Escape and establishment of transgenic glyphosate-resistant creeping bentgrass Agrostis stolonifera in Oregon, USA: A 4-year study,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 486–494, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. Kawata, K. Murakami, and T. Ishikawa, “Dispersal and persistence of genetically modified oilseed rape around Japanese harbors,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 120–126, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. P. Londo, N. S. Bautista, C. L. Sagers, E. H. Lee, and L. S. Watrud, “Glyphosate drift promotes changes in fitness and transgene gene flow in canola (Brassica napus) and hybrids,” Annals of Botany, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 957–965, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. Snow, “Unwanted transgenes re-discovered in oaxacan maize,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 569–571, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. R. L. Dillon, G. Lester, R. S. John, and C. H. Tinsley, “Differentiating conflicts in beliefs versus value tradeoffs in the domestic intelligence policy debate,” Risk Analysis, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 713–728, 2012.
  61. M. F. Dahlstrom, A. Dudo, and D. Brossard, “Precision of information, sensational information, and self-efficacy information as message-level variables affecting risk perceptions,” Risk Analysis, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 155–166, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. W. Schulze and B. Wansink, “Toxics, toyotas, and terrorism: the behavioral economics of fear and stigma,” Risk Analysis, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 678–694, 2012.
  63. A. Hilbeck and D. A. Andow, Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms: A Case Study of Bt Maize in Kenya, CABI, Cambridge, UK, 2004.