Table 1: Malaria vaccine antigens expressed in plants.

Malaria antigensPlant/expression systemExpression levelFunctional evaluationRefs.

Asexual blood stage antigens
P. falciparum MSP119 (PfMSP119)Tobacco/nuclear transformation0.0035% TSPNot reported[30]
P. falciparum MSP142 (PfMSP142)A. thaliana seeds/nuclear transformation5% TSPImmunoreactivity to sera from malaria-infected patients[35]
P. yoelii MSP4/5 (PyMSP4/5)Tobacco/nuclear transformation
Tobacco/magnICON
0.02–0.04% TSP
10% TSP (1-2 mg/g FW)
Immunogenic by i.p. and oral delivery to mice
Induction of specific antibodies by oral delivery or primed by a DNA vaccine to mice
[25]
[33]
P. yoelii MSP119 (PyMSP119)Tobacco/magnICON23% TSP (3-4 mg/g FW)Immunogenic by i.p. delivery with Freund’s adjuvant or oral administration without any adjuvant[65]
P. falciparum AMA1 (PfAMA1)Tobacco/chloroplast transformation
Lettuce/chloroplast transformation
13.1% TPS
7.3% TSP
Induction of specific antibodies in s.c. and orally immunized mice
Immunoreactivity to native parasite proteins
[36]
P. falciparum MSP1 (PfMSP1)Tobacco/chloroplast transformation
Lettuce/chloroplast transformation
10.1% TSP
6.1% TSP
Induction of specific antibodies in s.c. and orally immunized mice
Immunoreactivity to native parasite proteins
[36]
P. vivax MSP1 (PvMSP1)B. napus/nuclear transformationNot reportedInduction of antigen-specific IgG1 and increase in Th1-related cytokines IL-12 (p40), TNF, and IFN-γ in orally immunized mice[39]
P. vivax CSP (PvCSP)B. napus/nuclear transformationNot reportedInduction of antigen-specific IgG1 and increase in Th1-related cytokines IL-12 (p40), TNF, and IFN-γ in orally immunized mice[39]

Sexual stage antigens
P. falciparum P230 (Pfs230)Tobacco/agroinfiltration800 mg/kg FWInduction of transmission-blocking antibodies in s.c. and i.m. immunized mice Immunoreactivity to native parasite proteins[38]
P. falciparum P25 (Pfs25) Tobacco/agroinfiltration 0.25 and 0.4 mg/g FW Induction of transmission-blocking antibodies in i.m. immunized mice Immunoreactivity to native parasite proteins [37]

TSP: total soluble protein. FW: fresh weight. i.p.: intraperitoneal. i.s.: intrasubcutaneous. i.m.: intramuscular.