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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 232863, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/232863
Research Article

Molecular Imaging of Mesothelioma with 9 9 m T c -ECG and 6 8 G a -ECG

Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, P.O. Box 59, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA

Received 6 January 2012; Revised 9 February 2012; Accepted 16 February 2012

Academic Editor: Lie-Hang Shen

Copyright © 2012 Yin-Han Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We have developed ethylenedicysteine-glucosamine (ECG) as an alternative to 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) for cancer imaging. ECG localizes in the nuclear components of cells via the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. This study was to evaluate the feasibility of imaging mesothelioma with 9 9 m T c -ECG and 6 8 G a -ECG. ECG was synthesized from thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-amino-D-glucopyranose, followed by reduction in sodium and liquid ammonia to yield ECG (52%). ECG was chelated with 9 9 m T c /tin (II) and 6 8 G a /69Ga chloride for in vitro and in vivo studies in mesothelioma. The highest tumor uptake of 9 9 m T c -ECG is 0.47 at 30 min post injection, and declined to 0.08 at 240 min post injection. Tumor uptake (%ID/g), tumor/lung, tumor/blood, and tumor/muscle count density ratios for 9 9 m T c -ECG (30–240 min) were 0 . 4 7 ± 0 . 0 6 to 0 . 0 8 ± 0 . 0 1 ; 0 . 7 1 ± 0 . 0 7 to 0 . 8 5 ± 0 . 0 4 ; 0 . 4 7 ± 0 . 0 3 to 0 . 5 1 ± 0 . 0 1 , and 3 . 4 9 ± 0 . 2 4 to 5 . 0 6 ± 0 . 2 5 ; for 6 8 G a -ECG (15–60 min) were 0 . 7 0 ± 0 . 0 6 to 0 . 9 2 ± 0 . 0 8 ; 0 . 6 4 ± 0 . 0 5 to 1 . 1 5 ± 0 . 0 8 ; 0 . 4 2 ± 0 . 0 3 to 0 . 6 7 ± 0 . 0 7 , and 3 . 8 4 ± 0 . 5 2 to 7 . 0 0 ± 1 . 4 2 ; for 18F-FDG (30–180 min) were 1 . 8 6 ± 0 . 2 2 to 1 . 3 8 ± 0 . 3 5 ; 3 . 1 8 ± 0 . 4 4 to 2 . 9 2 ± 0 . 3 4 , 4 . 1 9 ± 0 . 4 4 to 1 9 . 4 1 ± 2 . 0 5 and 5 . 7 5 ± 2 . 5 5 to 3 . 3 3 ± 0 . 6 5 , respectively. Tumor could be clearly visualized with 9 9 m T c -ECG and 6 8 G a -ECG in mesothelioma-bearing rats. 9 9 m T c -ECG and 6 8 G a -ECG showed increased uptake in mesothelioma, suggesting they may be useful in diagnosing mesothelioma and also monitoring therapeutic response.