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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 259349, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/259349
Review Article

Recent Advances in Imaging of Dopaminergic Neurons for Evaluation of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Jiaan Village, Lungtan Township, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan

Received 15 December 2011; Accepted 27 January 2012

Academic Editor: David J. Yang

Copyright © 2012 Lie-Hang Shen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Dopamine is the most intensely studied monoaminergic neurotransmitter. Dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in regulating several aspects of basic brain function, including motor, behavior, motivation, and working memory. To date, there are numerous positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracers available for targeting different steps in the process of dopaminergic neurotransmission, which permits us to quantify dopaminergic activity in the living human brain. Degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system causes Parkinson’s disease (PD) and related Parkinsonism. Dopamine is the neurotransmitter that has been classically associated with the reinforcing effects of drug abuse. Abnormalities within the dopamine system in the brain are involved in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dopamine receptors play an important role in schizophrenia and the effect of neuroleptics is through blockage of dopamine D2 receptors. This review will concentrate on the radiotracers that have been developed for imaging dopaminergic neurons, describe the clinical aspects in the assessment of neuropsychiatric disorders, and suggest future directions in the diagnosis and management of such disorders.