Table 1: Radiotracers available for targeting different steps in the process of dopaminergic neurotransmission and clinical applications.

TargetingTracerChemical nameClinical studies (references)

Dopamine synthesis and turn over18F-DOPAL-3,4-dihydroxy-6-[18F]-fluorophenylalaninePD [11, 2023], gene therapy for PD [2426], ADHD [27], schizophrenia [28, 29]
18F-FMTO-[18F]-fluoromethyl-D-tyrosineGene therapy for PD [30, 31]

Dopamine transporter11C-CFT[11C]-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-ltropaneHeroin abuse [32]
11C-altropane2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-((E)-3-iodo-prop-2-enyl)tropaneADHD [33]
123I-β-CIT (Dopascan)[123I]-(1R)-2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-iodophenyl)-tropanePD [11, 20], PM [34], PD & ET [35], cocaine abuse [36, 37], ADHD [38]
123I-FP-CIT (DaTSCAN)[123I] N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropanePM [3941], PM & ET [42], PD & DLB [43], AD, PD & DLB [44], ADHD [4547], schizophrenia [48]
99mTc-TRODAT-1[99mTc]technetium [2-[[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo [3.2.1]oct-2-yl]-methyl](2-mercaptoethyl)amino]-ethyl]amino]ethane-thiolato(3-)-N2,N2′,S2,S2′]oxo-[1R-(exo-exo)]PD [23, 4951], MSA [52], PM & VP [53], DRD [54], PSP [55], genetic study of PD [51, 56], genetic study of MJD [57], cocaine abuse [58], opiate abuse [59], nicotine dependence [60, 61], ADHD [6268]
123I-altropane[123I]-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-iodoprop-1-en-3-yl) ortropanePD [21], ADHD [69]
123I-IPT[123I]-N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl) tropaneADHD [70]

Dopamine D1 receptor11C-NNC 112(+)-5-(7-Benzofuranyl)-8-chloro-7-hydroxy-3-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepineSchizophrenia [71]
11C-SCH 23390(R)-(+)-8-Chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-[11C]methyl-5-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepin-7-olSchizophrenia [72, 73]

Dopamine D2 receptor11C-Raclopride3,5-dichloro-N-{[(2S)-1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl]methyl}-2-hydroxy-6-[11C]methoxybenzamideDrug abuse [7479] cocaine abuse [80, 81], methamphetamine abuse [82], opiate abuse [83], alcohol dependence [84], ADHD [85, 86], antipsychotics [48, 8789]
123I-IBZM(S)-(-)-3-[123I]iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]benzamidePM [40, 41], schizophrenia [90], antipsychotics [89, 91, 92]

vesicular monoamine transporter type-211C-DTBZ(±)-α-[11C]dihydrotetrabenazinePD [7, 11, 20]
18F-FP-DTBZ (AV-133)9-[18F]fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazinePD [93], DLB & AD [94]

Abbreviations: Parkinson’s disease (PD), Parkinsonism (PM), multiple-system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), essential tremor (ET), vascular Parkinsonism (VP), Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), DOPA-responsive dystonia (DRD), dementia with Lewy bodies disease (DLB), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).